User menu

Pharmacological treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Bibliographic reference Castanares Zapatero, Diego ; Hantson, Philippe. Pharmacological treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage.. In: Annals of Intensive Care, Vol. 1, no. 1, p. 12 (2011)
Permanent URL http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/88987
  1. de Rooij N K, Linn F H H, van der Plas J A, Algra A, Rinkel G J E, Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends, 10.1136/jnnp.2007.117655
  2. Pluta Ryszard M., Hansen-Schwartz Jacob, Dreier Jens, Vajkoczy Peter, Macdonald R. Loch, Nishizawa Shigeru, Kasuya Hideotoshi, Wellman George, Keller Emanuela, Zauner Alois, Dorsch Nicholas, Clark Joseph, Ono Shigeki, Kiris Talat, LeRoux Peter, Zhang John H., Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage: time for a new world of thought, 10.1179/174313209x393564
  3. Dorsch N.W.C., King M.T., A review of cerebral vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage Part I: Incidence and effects, 10.1016/0967-5868(94)90005-1
  4. Rabinstein A. A., Friedman J. A., Weigand S. D., McClelland R. L., Fulgham J. R., Manno E. M., Atkinson J. L.D., Wijdicks E. F.M., Predictors of Cerebral Infarction in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1161/01.str.0000133132.76983.8e
  5. Vajkoczy Peter, Horn Peter, Thome Claudius, Munch Elke, Schmiedek Peter, Regional cerebral blood flow monitoring in the diagnosis of delayed ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.2003.98.6.1227
  6. Heros Roberto C., Zervas Nicholas T., Varsos Vassilios, Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: An update, 10.1002/ana.410140602
  7. Fisher C. M., Roberson G. H., Ojemann R. G., Cerebral Vasospasm with Ruptured Saccular Aneurysm — The Clinical Manifestations : , 10.1227/00006123-197711000-00004
  8. Greenberg E. D., Gold R., Reichman M., John M., Ivanidze J., Edwards A. M., Johnson C. E., Comunale J. P., Sanelli P., Diagnostic Accuracy of CT Angiography and CT Perfusion for Cerebral Vasospasm: A Meta-Analysis, 10.3174/ajnr.a2246
  9. Weir Bryce, Grace Michael, Hansen John, Rothberg Charles, Time course of vasospasm in man, 10.3171/jns.1978.48.2.0173
  10. Suarez Jose I., Tarr Robert W., Selman Warren R., Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1056/nejmra052732
  11. Dhar Rajat, Diringer Michael N., The Burden of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Predicts Vasospasm and Outcome after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1007/s12028-008-9054-2
  12. Diringer Michael N., Subarachnoid hemorrhage: A multiple-organ system disease * : , 10.1097/01.ccm.0000063528.09569.3a
  13. Dumont Aaron S., Dumont Randall J., Chow Michael M., Lin Chi-lung, Calisaneller Tarkan, Ley Klaus F., Kassell Neal F., Lee Kevin S., Cerebral Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Putative Role of Inflammation : , 10.1227/01.neu.0000068863.37133.9e
  14. Yoshimoto Y., Tanaka Y., Hoya K., Acute Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1161/hs0901.095646
  15. Liszczak Theodore M., Varsos Vassilios G., Black Peter McL., Kistler J. Philip, Zervas Nicholas T., Cerebral arterial constriction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with blood components within the arterial wall, 10.3171/jns.1983.58.1.0018
  16. Mayberg Marc R., Okada Tomohisa, Bark Don H., The role of hemoglobin in arterial narrowing after subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.1990.72.4.0634
  17. Rubanyi Gabor M., Endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors, 10.1002/jcb.240460106
  18. Peterson John W., Kwun Byung-Duk, Hackett John D., Zervas Nicholas T., The role of inflammation in experimental cerebral vasospasm, 10.3171/jns.1990.72.5.0767
  19. Kassell Neal F., Torner James C., Haley E. Clarke, Jane John A., Adams Harold P., Kongable Gail L., , The International Cooperative Studyon the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery : Part 1: Overall management results, 10.3171/jns.1990.73.1.0018
  20. Origitano Thomas C., Wascher Thomas M., Reichman Howard O., Anderson Douglas E., Sustained Increased Cerebral Blood Flow with Prophylactic Hypertensive Hypervolemic Hemodilution (“Triple-H” Therapy) after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : , 10.1227/00006123-199011000-00010
  21. Treggiari Miriam M., Walder Bernhard, Suter Peter M., Romand Jacques-André, Systematic review of the prevention of delayed ischemic neurological deficits with hypertension, hypervolemia, and hemodilution therapy following subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.2003.98.5.0978
  22. Rabinstein Alejandro A, Lanzino Giuseppe, Wijdicks Eelco FM, Multidisciplinary management and emerging therapeutic strategies in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, 10.1016/s1474-4422(10)70087-9
  23. Bederson J. B., Connolly E. S., Batjer H. H., Dacey R. G., Dion J. E., Diringer M. N., Duldner J. E., Harbaugh R. E., Patel A. B., Rosenwasser R. H., Guidelines for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From a Special Writing Group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association, 10.1161/strokeaha.108.191395
  24. Allen George S., Ahn Hyo S., Preziosi Thomas J., Battye Roy, Boone Stephen C., Chou Shelley N., Kelly David L., Weir Bryce K., Crabbe Ruth A., Lavik Paula J., Rosenbloom Shelley B., Dorsey Frank C., Ingram Charles R., Mellits David E., Bertsch Linda A., Boisvert Donald P. J., Hundley Mary B., Johnson Rayetta K., Strom Jo A., Transou Carole R., Cerebral Arterial Spasm – A Controlled Trial of Nimodipine in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1056/nejm198303173081103
  25. Mee Edward, Dorrance Deborah, Lowe Derek, Neil-Dwyer Glenn, Controlled Study of Nimodipine in Aneurysm Patients Treated Early after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : , 10.1227/00006123-198803000-00006
  26. Petruk Kenneth C., West Michael, Mohr Gerard, Weir Bryce K. A., Benoit Brien G., Gentili Fred, Disney Lew B., Khan Moe I., Grace Michael, Holness Renn O., Karwon Melinda S., Ford Robert M., Cameron G. Stuart, Tucker William S., Purves G. Barrie, Miller Jack D. R., Hunter K. Michael, Richard Michael T., Durity Felix A., Chan Richard, Clein Lawrence J., Maroun Falah B., Godon Alain, Nimodipine treatment in poor-grade aneurysm patients : Results of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 10.3171/jns.1988.68.4.0505
  27. Pickard J. D., Murray G. D., Illingworth R., Shaw M. D., Teasdale G. M., Foy P. M., Humphrey P. R., Lang D. A., Nelson R., Richards P., Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial., 10.1136/bmj.298.6674.636
  28. Kasuya H., Onda H., Takeshita M., Okada Y., Hori T., Efficacy and Safety of Nicardipine Prolonged-Release Implants for Preventing Vasospasm in Humans, 10.1161/01.str.0000014563.75483.22
  29. Kronvall Erik, Undrén Per, Romner Bertil, Säveland Hans, Cronqvist Mats, Nilsson Ola G., Nimodipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized study of intravenous or peroral administration : Clinical article, 10.3171/2008.7.jns08178
  30. Haley E. Clarke, Kassell Neal F., Torner James C., , A randomized controlled trial of high-dose intravenous nicardipine in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : A report of the Cooperative Aneurysm Study, 10.3171/jns.1993.78.4.0537
  31. Papavasiliou Achilles K, Harbaugh Kimberly S, Birkmeyer Nancy J, Feeney James M, Martin Paul B, Faccio Charlotte, Harbaugh Robert E, Clinical outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients treated with oral diltiazem and limited intensive care management, 10.1016/s0090-3019(01)00364-0
  32. Schmidt Ulrich, Bittner Edward, Pivi Silvia, Marota John J. A., Hemodynamic Management and Outcome of Patients Treated for Cerebral Vasospasm with Intraarterial Nicardipine and/or Milrinone : , 10.1213/ane.0b013e3181cc9ed8
  33. Hui C., Lau K.P., Efficacy of intra-arterial nimodipine in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm complicating subarachnoid haemorrhage, 10.1016/j.crad.2005.04.004
  34. Saunders F.W., Marshall W.J.S., Diltiazem: Does it affect vasospasm?, 10.1016/0090-3019(86)90368-x
  35. Kanamaru Kenji, Weir Bryce K. A., Findlay Max J., Grace Michael, Macdonald Loch R., A Dosage Study of the Effect of the 21-Aminosteroid U74006F on Chronic Cerebral Vasospasm in a Primate Model : , 10.1227/00006123-199007000-00004
  36. Kassell Neal F., Haley E. Clarke, Apperson-Hansen Carolyn, Alves Wayne M., , Randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of tirilazad mesylate in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative study in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, 10.3171/jns.1996.84.2.0221
  37. Haley E. Clarke, Kassell Neal F., Apperson-Hansen Carolyn, Maile Marie H., Alves Wayne M., , A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of tirilazad mesylate in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cooperative study in North America, 10.3171/jns.1997.86.3.0467
  38. Lanzino Giuseppe, Kassell Neal F., , Double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study of high-dose tirilazad mesylate in women with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Part II. A cooperative study in North America, 10.3171/jns.1999.90.6.1018
  39. Lanzino Giuseppe, Kassell Neal F., Dorsch Nicholas W. C., Pasqualin Alberto, Brandt Lennart, Schmiedek Peter, Truskowski Laura L., Alves Wayne M., , Double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study of high-dose tirilazad mesylate in women with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Part I. A cooperative study in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, 10.3171/jns.1999.90.6.1011
  40. Liao James K., Laufs Ulrich, PLEIOTROPIC EFFECTS OF STATINS, 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.45.120403.095748
  41. van der Most Peter J., Dolga Amalia M., Nijholt Ingrid M., Luiten Paul G.M., Eisel Ulrich L.M., Statins: Mechanisms of neuroprotection, 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.02.002
  42. Aoki T., Kataoka H., Ishibashi R., Nozaki K., Hashimoto N., Simvastatin Suppresses the Progression of Experimentally Induced Cerebral Aneurysms in Rats, 10.1161/strokeaha.107.503086
  43. Endres M., Laufs U., Huang Z., Nakamura T., Huang P., Moskowitz M. A., Liao J. K., Stroke protection by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase, 10.1073/pnas.95.15.8880
  44. McGirt Matthew J., Blessing Robert, Alexander Michael J., Nimjee Shahid M., Woodworth Graeme F., Friedman Allan H., Graffagnino Carmelo, Laskowitz Daniel T., Lynch John R., Risk of cerebral vasopasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage reduced by statin therapy: a multivariate analysis of an institutional experience, 10.3171/jns.2006.105.5.671
  45. Kern Michael, Lam Mark M.F., Knuckey Neville W., Lind Christopher R.P., Statins may not protect against vasospasm in subarachnoid haemorrhage, 10.1016/j.jocn.2008.08.001
  46. Lynch J. R., Wang H., McGirt M. J., Floyd J., Friedman A. H., Coon A. L., Blessing R., Alexander M. J., Graffagnino C., Warner D. S., Laskowitz D. T., Simvastatin Reduces Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Results of a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial, 10.1161/01.str.0000177879.11607.10
  47. Tseng M.-Y., Czosnyka M., Richards H., Pickard J. D., Kirkpatrick P. J., Effects of Acute Treatment With Pravastatin on Cerebral Vasospasm, Autoregulation, and Delayed Ischemic Deficits After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Phase II Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial, 10.1161/01.str.0000176743.67564.5d
  48. Vergouwen Mervyn DI, Meijers Joost CM, Geskus Ronald B, Coert Bert A, Horn Janneke, Stroes Erik SG, van der Poll Tom, Vermeulen Marinus, Roos Yvo BWEM, Biologic Effects of Simvastatin in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial, 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.59
  49. Chou S. H.-Y., Smith E. E., Badjatia N., Nogueira R. G., Sims J. R., Ogilvy C. S., Rordorf G. A., Ayata C., A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1161/strokeaha.107.505875
  50. Kramer Andreas H., Gurka Matthew J., Nathan Bart, Dumont Aaron S., Kassell Neal F., Bleck Thomas P., Statin Use Was Not Associated With Less Vasospasm or Improved Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1227/01.neu.0000316009.19012.e3
  51. Vergouwen M. D.I., de Haan R. J., Vermeulen M., Roos Y. B.W.E.M., Effect of Statin Treatment on Vasospasm, Delayed Cerebral Ischemia, and Functional Outcome in Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Update, 10.1161/strokeaha.109.556332
  52. van den Bergh Walter M., Algra Ale, van der Sprenkel Jan Willem Berkelbach, Tulleken Cornelis A.F., Rinkel Gabriël J.E., Hypomagnesemia after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1227/01.neu.0000043984.42487.0e
  53. Marinov Marin B., Harbaugh Kimberly S., Hoopes P. Jack, Pikus Harold J., Harbaugh Robert E., Neuroprotective effects of preischemia intraarterial magnesium sulfate in reversible focal cerebral ischemia, 10.3171/jns.1996.85.1.0117
  54. Veyna Richard S., Seyfried Donald, Burke Don G., Zimmerman Chris, Mlynarek Mark, Nichols Victoria, Marrocco Anna, Thomas Ajith J., Mitsias Panayiotis D., Malik Ghaus M., Magnesium sulfate therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.2002.96.3.0510
  55. van den Bergh W. M., , Magnesium Sulfate in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Randomized Controlled Trial, 10.1161/01.str.0000160801.96998.57
  56. Wong G. K. C., Poon W. S., Chan M. T. V., Boet R., Gin T., Ng S. C. P., Zee B. C. Y., , Intravenous Magnesium Sulphate for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (IMASH): A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase III Trial, 10.1161/strokeaha.109.571125
  57. Yanagisawa Masashi, Kurihara Hiroki, Kimura Sadao, Tomobe Yoko, Kobayashi Mieko, Mitsui Youji, Yazaki Yoshio, Goto Katsutoshi, Masaki Tomoh, A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, 10.1038/332411a0
  58. Pluta Ryszard M., Boock Robert J., Afshar John K., Clouse Kathleen, Bacic Mima, Ehrenreich Hannelore, Oldfield Edward H., Source and cause of endothelin-1 release into cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.1997.87.2.0287
  59. Zimmermann Michael, Seifert Volker, Endothelin and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: An Overview, 10.1097/00006123-199810000-00083
  60. Hansen-Schwartz Jacob, Hoel Natalie Løvland, Zhou Mingfang, Xu Cang-Bao, Svendgaard Niels-Aage, Edvinsson Lars, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Enhances Endothelin Receptor Expression and Function in Rat Cerebral Arteries : , 10.1227/01.neu.0000058467.82442.64
  61. Shaw Malcolm D. M., Vermeulen Marinus, Murray Gordon D., Pickard John D., Bell B. Anthony, Teasdale Graham M., An efficacy and safety study of the ETA/B receptor antagonist TAK-044 in subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.2000.93.6.0992
  62. Vajkoczy Peter, Meyer Bernhard, Weidauer Stefan, Raabe Andreas, Thome Claudius, Ringel Florian, Breu Volker, Schmiedek Peter, , Clazosentan (AXV-034343), a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist, in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm following severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase IIa study, 10.3171/jns.2005.103.1.0009
  63. Macdonald R. L., Kassell N. F., Mayer S., Ruefenacht D., Schmiedek P., Weidauer S., Frey A., Roux S., Pasqualin A., , Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarction Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (CONSCIOUS-1): Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Dose-Finding Trial, 10.1161/strokeaha.108.519942
  64. Macdonald R. Loch, Higashida Randall T., Keller Emanuela, Mayer Stephan A., Molyneux Andy, Raabe Andreas, Vajkoczy Peter, Wanke Isabel, Frey Aline, Marr Angelina, Roux Sébastien, Kassell Neal F., Preventing Vasospasm Improves Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Rationale and Design of CONSCIOUS-2 and CONSCIOUS-3 Trials, 10.1007/s12028-010-9433-3
  65. Sauzeau Vincent, Le Jeune Hélène, Cario-Toumaniantz Chrystelle, Smolenski Albert, Lohmann Suzanne M., Bertoglio Jacques, Chardin Pierre, Pacaud Pierre, Loirand Gervaise, Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway Inhibits RhoA-induced Ca2+Sensitization of Contraction in Vascular Smooth Muscle, 10.1074/jbc.m000753200
  66. Shibuya Masato, Suzuki Yoshio, Sugita Kenichiro, Saito Isamu, Sasaki Tomio, Takakura Kintomo, Nagata Izumi, Kikuchi Haruhiko, Takemae Toshiki, Hidaka Hiroyoshi, Nakashima Mitsuyoshi, Effect of AT877 on cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : Results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial, 10.3171/jns.1992.76.4.0571
  67. Siironen Jari, Juvela Seppo, Varis Joona, Porras Matti, Poussa Kristiina, Ilveskero Sorella, Hernesniemi Juha, Lassila Riitta, No effect of enoxaparin on outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 10.3171/jns.2003.99.6.0953
  68. Belayev Ludmila, Saul Isabel, Huh Pil W, Finotti Nicoletta, Zhao Weizhao, Busto Raul, Ginsberg Myron D, Neuroprotective effect of high-dose albumin therapy against global ischemic brain injury in rats, 10.1016/s0006-8993(99)01952-6
  69. Matsui Toru, Asano Takao, The Hemodynamic Effects of Prolonged Albumin Administration in Beagle Dogs Exposed to Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : , 10.1227/00006123-199301000-00012
  70. Ginsberg M. D., Hill M. D., Palesch Y. Y., Ryckborst K. J., Tamariz D., The ALIAS Pilot Trial: A Dose-Escalation and Safety Study of Albumin Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke--I: Physiological Responses and Safety Results, 10.1161/01.str.0000231388.72646.05
  71. Suarez Jose I., Shannon Larry, Zaidat Osama O., Suri Muhammad F., Singh Grwant, Lynch Gwendolyn, Selman Warren R., Effect of human albumin administration on clinical outcome and hospital cost in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.3171/jns.2004.100.4.0585
  72. Suarez Jose I., Martin Renee H., Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Human Albumin: ALISAH Study. Rationale and Design, 10.1007/s12028-010-9392-8
  73. Boldt J., Use of albumin: an update, 10.1093/bja/aep393
  74. PLUTA R, Delayed cerebral vasospasm and nitric oxide: review, new hypothesis, and proposed treatment, 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2004.10.002
  75. Keyrouz Salah G, Diringer Michael N, Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.1186/cc5958
  76. Thomas Jeffrey E., Rosenwasser Robert H., Reversal of Severe Cerebral Vasospasm in Three Patients after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Initial Observations Regarding the Use of Intraventricular Sodium Nitroprusside in Humans, 10.1097/00006123-199901000-00026
  77. Agrawal A., Patir R., Kato Y., Chopra S., Sano H., Kanno T., Role of Intraventricular Sodium Nitroprusside in Vasospasm Secondary to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A 5-year Prospective Study with Review of the Literature, 10.1055/s-0028-1085454
  78. Reinert Michael, Wiest Roland, Barth Laurence, Andres Robert, Ozdoba Christoph, Seiler Rolf, Transdermal nitroglycerin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 10.1179/016164104225015976
  79. Villa Pia, Bigini Paolo, Mennini Tiziana, Agnello Davide, Laragione Teresa, Cagnotto Alfredo, Viviani Barbara, Marinovich Marina, Cerami Anthony, Coleman Thomas R., Brines Michael, Ghezzi Pietro, Erythropoietin Selectively Attenuates Cytokine Production and Inflammation in Cerebral Ischemia by Targeting Neuronal Apoptosis, 10.1084/jem.20021067
  80. Celik M., Gokmen N., Erbayraktar S., Akhisaroglu M., Konakc S., Ulukus C., Genc S., Genc K., Sagiroglu E., Cerami A., Brines M., Erythropoietin prevents motor neuron apoptosis and neurologic disability in experimental spinal cord ischemic injury, 10.1073/pnas.042693799
  81. Kumral Abdullah, Ozer Erdener, Yilmaz Osman, Akhisaroglu Mustafa, Gokmen Necati, Duman Nuray, Ulukus Cagnur, Genc Sermin, Ozkan Hasan, Neuroprotective Effect of Erythropoietin on Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rats, 10.1159/000068926
  82. Arcasoy Murat O., The non-haematopoietic biological effects of erythropoietin, 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07014.x
  83. Tseng Ming-Yuan, Hutchinson Peter J., Richards Hugh K., Czosnyka Marek, Pickard John D., Erber Wendy N., Brown Stephen, Kirkpatrick Peter J., Acute systemic erythropoietin therapy to reduce delayed ischemic deficits following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial : Clinical article, 10.3171/2009.3.jns081332
  84. Fisher C. M., Kistler J. P., Davis J. M., Relation of Cerebral Vasospasm to Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Visualized by Computerized Tomographic Scanning : , 10.1227/00006123-198001000-00001
  85. Amin-Hanjani Sepideh, Ogilvy Christopher S., Barker Fred G., Does Intracisternal Thrombolysis Prevent Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage? A Meta-analysis, 10.1227/01.neu.0000103488.94855.4f
  86. Findlay J. Max, Kassell Neal F., Weir Bryce K.A., Haley E. Clarke, Kongable Gail, Germanson Terry, Truskowski Laura, Alves Wayne M., Holness Renn O., Knuckey Neville W., Yonas Howard, Steinberg Gary K., West Michael, Winn H. Richard, Ferguson Gary, A Randomized Trial of Intraoperative, Intracisternal Tissue Plasminogen Activator for the Prevention of Vasospasm, 10.1227/00006123-199507000-00041
  87. Badjatia Neeraj, Fernandez Luis, Schmidt J. Michael, Lee Kiwon, Claassen Jan, Connolly E. Sander, Mayer Stephan A., Impact of Induced Normothermia on Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, 10.1227/01.neu.0000367618.42794.aa