User menu

Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

Bibliographic reference Hatem, Samar M. ; Saussez, Geoffroy ; della Faille, Margaux ; Prist, Vincent ; Zhang, Xue ; et. al. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery. In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 10, no.in press, p. in press (2016)
Permanent URL http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/177235
  1. Ackerley S. J., Stinear C. M., Barber P. A., Byblow W. D., Combining Theta Burst Stimulation With Training After Subcortical Stroke, 10.1161/strokeaha.110.583278
  2. Ackerley Suzanne J., Stinear Cathy M., Barber P. Alan, Byblow Winston D., Priming sensorimotor cortex to enhance task-specific training after subcortical stroke, 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.11.020
  3. Acler Michele, Robol E., Fiaschi A., Manganotti P., A double blind placebo RCT to investigate the effects of serotonergic modulation on brain excitability and motor recovery in stroke patients, 10.1007/s00415-009-5093-7
  4. Key Issues in Neurological Physiotherapy, 219 (1990)
  5. Adeyemo Bamidele O., Simis Marcel, Macea Debora Duarte, Fregni Felipe, Systematic Review of Parameters of Stimulation, Clinical Trial Design Characteristics, and Motor Outcomes in Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke, 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00088
  6. Aisen M. L., Krebs H. I., Hogan N., McDowell F., Volpe B. T., The Effect of Robot-Assisted Therapy and Rehabilitative Training on Motor Recovery Following Stroke, 10.1001/archneur.1997.00550160075019
  7. Altenmüller E., Marco-Pallares J., Münte T. F., Schneider S., Neural Reorganization Underlies Improvement in Stroke-induced Motor Dysfunction by Music-supported Therapy, 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04580.x
  8. Altschuler Eric Lewin, Wisdom Sidney B, Stone Lance, Foster Chris, Galasko Douglas, Llewellyn D Mark E, Ramachandran VS, Rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke with a mirror, 10.1016/s0140-6736(99)00920-4
  9. Ang Kai Keng, Guan Cuntai, Phua Kok Soon, Wang Chuanchu, Zhao Ling, Teo Wei Peng, Chen Changwu, Ng Yee Sien, Chew Effie, Facilitating Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Motor Imagery Brain-Computer Interface With Robotic Feedback for Stroke Rehabilitation, 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.08.008
  10. Ausenda, Eur. J. Phys. Rehabil. Med., 47, 417 (2011)
  11. Au-Yeung Stephanie S.Y., Wang Juliana, Chen Ye, Chua Eldrich, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Primary Motor Area Improves Hand Dexterity and Selective Attention in Chronic Stroke : , 10.1097/phm.0000000000000127
  12. Bajaj Sahil, Butler Andrew J., Drake Daniel, Dhamala Mukesh, Brain effective connectivity during motor-imagery and execution following stroke and rehabilitation, 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.06.006
  13. Bajaj Sahil, Butler Andrew J., Drake Daniel, Dhamala Mukesh, Functional organization and restoration of the brain motor-execution network after stroke and rehabilitation, 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00173
  14. Ballinger C, Ashburn A, Low J, Roderick P, Unpacking the black box of therapy – a pilot study to describe occupational therapy and physiotherapy interventions for people with stroke, 10.1191/026921599673198490
  15. Barclay-Goddard Ruth E, Stevenson Ted J, Poluha William, Thalman Leyda, Mental practice for treating upper extremity deficits in individuals with hemiparesis after stroke, 10.1002/14651858.cd005950.pub4
  16. Bastani A., Jaberzadeh S., Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis, 10.1016/j.clinph.2011.08.029
  17. Berends, Eur. J. Phys. Rehabil. Med., 45, 621 (2009)
  18. Bikson Marom, Datta Abhishek, Elwassif Maged, Establishing safety limits for transcranial direct current stimulation, 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.03.018
  19. Bleyenheuft Yannick, Gordon Andrew M., Precision Grip in Congenital and Acquired Hemiparesis: Similarities in Impairments and Implications for Neurorehabilitation, 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00459
  20. Bobath, Adult Hemiplegia: Evaluation and Treatment, 3rd Edn. (1990)
  21. Bolton David A.E., Cauraugh James H., Hausenblas Heather A., Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation and stroke motor recovery of arm/hand functions: a meta-analysis, 10.1016/j.jns.2004.05.005
  22. Bonita R., Beaglehole R., Recovery of motor function after stroke, 10.1161/01.str.19.12.1497
  23. Bowman, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 60, 497 (1979)
  24. Bradt Joke, Magee Wendy L, Dileo Cheryl, Wheeler Barbara L, McGilloway Emer, Music therapy for acquired brain injury, 10.1002/14651858.cd006787.pub2
  25. Brashear Allison, Gordon Mark F., Elovic Elie, Kassicieh V. Daniel, Marciniak Christina, Do Mai, Lee Chia-Ho, Jenkins Stephen, Turkel Catherine, Intramuscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Wrist and Finger Spasticity after a Stroke, 10.1056/nejmoa011892
  26. Burgar Charles G., Lum Peter S., Scremin A. M. Erika, Garber Susan L., Van der Loos H. F. Machiel, Kenney Deborah, Shor Peggy, Robot-assisted upper-limb therapy in acute rehabilitation setting following stroke: Department of Veterans Affairs multisite clinical trial, 10.1682/jrrd.2010.04.0062
  27. Butler Andrew J., Shuster Margaret, O'Hara Erin, Hurley Kevin, Middlebrooks Dionne, Guilkey Karen, A meta-analysis of the efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for upper limb motor recovery in stroke survivors, 10.1016/j.jht.2012.07.002
  28. Cameirao M. S., Badia S. B. i., Duarte E., Frisoli A., Verschure P. F. M. J., The Combined Impact of Virtual Reality Neurorehabilitation and Its Interfaces on Upper Extremity Functional Recovery in Patients With Chronic Stroke, 10.1161/strokeaha.112.653196
  29. Carey L, Sensory loss in stroke patients: Effective training of tactile and proprioceptive discrimination, 10.1016/0003-9993(93)90158-7
  30. Carr Janet H., Shepherd Roberta B., Enhancing Physical Activity and Brain Reorganization after Stroke, 10.1155/2011/515938
  31. Chan Aaron K, Finlayson Heather, Mills Patricia B, Does the method of botulinum neurotoxin injection for limb spasticity affect outcomes? A systematic review, 10.1177/0269215516655589
  32. Chang Won Hyuk, Kim Yun-Hee, Robot-assisted Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation, 10.5853/jos.2013.15.3.174
  33. Chanubol Ratanapat, Wongphaet Parit, Chavanich Napapit, Werner Cordula, Hesse Stefan, Bardeleben Anita, Merholz Jan, A randomized controlled trial of Cognitive Sensory Motor Training Therapy on the recovery of arm function in acute stroke patients, 10.1177/0269215512444631
  34. Charles Jeanne, Gordon Andrew M, Development of hand–arm bimanual intensive training (HABIT) for improving bimanual coordination in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, 10.1017/s0012162206002039
  35. Chen Yan, Guo Jeff J, Zhan Siyan, Patel Nick C, Treatment Effects of Antidepressants in Patients with Post-Stroke Depression: A Meta-Analysis, 10.1345/aph.1h389
  36. Childers Martin K, Brashear Allison, Jozefczyk Patricia, Reding Michael, Alexander David, Good David, Walcott Jennifer M, Jenkins S.W, Turkel Catherine, Molloy Patricia T, Dose-dependent response to intramuscular botulinum toxin type A for upper-limb spasticity in patients after a stroke, 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.10.015
  37. Chollet F., Dipiero V., Wise R. J. S., Brooks D. J., Dolan R. J., Frackowiak R. S. J., The functional anatomy of motor recovery after stroke in humans: A study with positron emission tomography, 10.1002/ana.410290112
  38. Cohen Leon, Synchronous Bimanual Movements Performed by Homologous and Non-Homologous Muscles, 10.2466/pms.1971.32.2.639
  39. Conroy Susan S., Whitall Jill, Dipietro Laura, Jones-Lush Lauren M., Zhan Min, Finley Margaret A., Wittenberg George F., Krebs Hermano I., Bever Christopher T., Effect of Gravity on Robot-Assisted Motor Training After Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Trial, 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.06.016
  40. Cordo Paul, Wolf Steven, Lou Jau-Shin, Bogey Ross, Stevenson Matthew, Hayes John, Roth Elliot, Treatment of Severe Hand Impairment Following Stroke by Combining Assisted Movement, Muscle Vibration, and Biofeedback : , 10.1097/npt.0000000000000023
  41. Coupar Fiona, Pollock Alex, Rowe Phil, Weir Christopher, Langhorne Peter, Predictors of upper limb recovery after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis, 10.1177/0269215511420305
  42. Cousins Elizabeth, Ward Anthony, Roffe Christine, Rimington Lesley, Pandyan Anand, Does low-dose botulinum toxin help the recovery of arm function when given early after stroke? A phase II randomized controlled pilot study to estimate effect size, 10.1177/0269215509358945
  43. Cramer S. C., Nelles G., Benson R. R., Kaplan J. D., Parker R. A., Kwong K. K., Kennedy D. N., Finklestein S. P., Rosen B. R., A Functional MRI Study of Subjects Recovered From Hemiparetic Stroke, 10.1161/01.str.28.12.2518
  44. Crosbie JH, Lennon S, McGoldrick MC, McNeill MDJ, McDonough SM, Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of the arm after hemiplegic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study, 10.1177/0269215511434575
  45. Daly Janis J., Hogan Neville, Perepezko Elizabeth M., Krebs Hermano I., Rogers Jean M., Goyal Kanu S., Dohring Mark E., Fredrickson Eric, Nethery Joan, Ruff Robert L., Response to upper-limb robotics and functional neuromuscular, 10.1682/jrrd.2005.02.0048
  46. Dam M., Tonin P., De Boni A., Pizzolato G., Casson S., Ermani M., Freo U., Piron L., Battistin L., Effects of Fluoxetine and Maprotiline on Functional Recovery in Poststroke Hemiplegic Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation Therapy, 10.1161/01.str.27.7.1211
  47. Dashtipour Khashayar, Chen Jack J., Walker Heather W., Lee Michael Y., Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Adult Upper Limb Spasticity : , 10.1097/phm.0000000000000208
  48. de Oliveira Rogério Adas Ayres, de Andrade Daniel Ciampi, Machado André Guelman Gomes, Teixeira Manoel Jacobsen, Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome, 10.1186/1471-2377-12-89
  49. Demetrios M, Gorelik A, Louie J, Brand C, Baguley I, Khan F, Outcomes of ambulatory rehabilitation programmes following botulinum toxin for spasticity in adults with stroke, 10.2340/16501977-1842
  50. Demetrios Marina, Khan Fary, Turner-Stokes Lynne, Brand Caroline, McSweeney Shane, Multidisciplinary rehabilitation following botulinum toxin and other focal intramuscular treatment for post-stroke spasticity, 10.1002/14651858.cd009689.pub2
  51. Dohle C., Body Scheme Gates Visual Processing, 10.1152/jn.00929.2003
  52. Eliassen James C., Boespflug Erin L., Lamy Martine, Allendorfer Jane, Chu Wen-Jang, Szaflarski Jerzy P., Brain-Mapping Techniques for Evaluating Poststroke Recovery and Rehabilitation: A Review, 10.1310/tsr1505-427
  53. Elsner Bernhard, Kugler Joachim, Pohl Marcus, Mehrholz Jan, Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving function and activities of daily living in patients after stroke, 10.1002/14651858.cd009645.pub2
  54. Eng Kynan, Siekierka Ewa, Pyk Pawel, Chevrier Edith, Hauser Yves, Cameirao Monica, Holper Lisa, Hägni Karin, Zimmerli Lukas, Duff Armin, Schuster Corina, Bassetti Claudio, Verschure Paul, Kiper Daniel, Interactive visuo-motor therapy system for stroke rehabilitation, 10.1007/s11517-007-0239-1
  55. Ertelt Denis, Small Steven, Solodkin Ana, Dettmers Christian, McNamara Adam, Binkofski Ferdinand, Buccino Giovanni, Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke, 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.03.043
  56. Fadiga, J. Neurophysiol., 73, 2608 (1995)
  57. Fasoli Susan E., Krebs Hermano I., Hogan Neville, Robotic Technology and Stroke Rehabilitation: Translating Research into Practice, 10.1310/g8xb-vm23-1tk7-pwqu
  58. Feydy A., Carlier R., Roby-Brami A., Bussel B., Cazalis F., Pierot L., Burnod Y., Maier M.A., Longitudinal Study of Motor Recovery After Stroke: Recruitment and Focusing of Brain Activation, 10.1161/01.str.0000017100.68294.52
  59. Fitzgerald Shirley G., Cooper Rory A., Thorman Tricia, Cooper Rosemarie, Guo SongFeng, Boninger Michael L., The GamecycleExercise System: Comparison With Standard Ergometry, 10.1080/10790268.2004.11752237
  60. Foley Norine, Pereira Shelialah, Salter Katherine, Fernandez Manuel Murie, Speechley Mark, Sequeira Keith, Miller Thomas, Teasell Robert, Treatment With Botulinum Toxin Improves Upper-Extremity Function Post Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 10.1016/j.apmr.2012.12.006
  61. Francisco Gerard, Chae John, Chawla Harmeen, Kirshblum Steven, Zorowitz Richard, Lewis Gerald, Pang Schone, Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation for improving the arm function of acute stroke survivors: A randomized pilot study, 10.1016/s0003-9993(98)90074-0
  62. Friedman, J. Neuroeng. Rehabil., 11, 76 (2014)
  63. Fusco, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 32, 301 (2014)
  64. Gaggioli A., Morganti F., Walker R., Meneghini A., Alcaniz M., Lozano J.A., Montesa J., Gil J.A., Riva G., Training with Computer-Supported Motor Imagery in Post-Stroke Rehabilitation, 10.1089/1094931041291312
  65. Gainotti G, Relation between depression after stroke, antidepressant therapy, and functional recovery, 10.1136/jnnp.71.2.258
  66. Gallese Vittorio, Fadiga Luciano, Fogassi Leonardo, Rizzolatti Giacomo, Action recognition in the premotor cortex, 10.1093/brain/119.2.593
  67. Gao Feng, Wang Shuang, Guo Yi, Wang Jing, Lou Min, Wu Jimin, Ding Meiping, Tian Mei, Zhang Hong, Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study, 10.1007/s00259-009-1342-3
  68. Garrison Kathleen A., Winstein Carolee J., Aziz-Zadeh Lisa, The Mirror Neuron System: A Neural Substrate for Methods in Stroke Rehabilitation, 10.1177/1545968309354536
  69. Giacobbe, NeuroRehabilitation, 33, 49 (2013)
  70. Gordon Andrew M, Schneider Jennifer A, Chinnan Ashley, Charles Jeanne R, Efficacy of a hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy (HABIT) in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized control trial, 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00830.x
  71. Gracies Jean-Michel, Bayle Nicolas, Goldberg Sarah, Simpson David M., Botulinum Toxin Type B in the Spastic Arm: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Preliminary Study, 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.03.016
  72. Hammami N., Coroian F.O., Julia M., Amri M., Mottet D., Hérisson C., Laffont I., Isokinetic muscle strengthening after acquired cerebral damage: A literature review, 10.1016/j.rehab.2012.03.003
  73. Hebert Debbie, Lindsay M Patrice, McIntyre Amanda, Kirton Adam, Rumney Peter G, Bagg Stephen, Bayley Mark, Dowlatshahi Dar, Dukelow Sean, Garnhum Maridee, Glasser Ev, Halabi Mary-Lou, Kang Ester, MacKay-Lyons Marilyn, Martino Rosemary, Rochette Annie, Rowe Sarah, Salbach Nancy, Semenko Brenda, Stack Bridget, Swinton Luchie, Weber Valentine, Mayer Matthew, Verrilli Sue, DeVeber Gabrielle, Andersen John, Barlow Karen, Cassidy Caitlin, Dilenge Marie-Emmanuelle, Fehlings Darcy, Hung Ryan, Iruthayarajah Jerome, Lenz Laura, Majnemer Annette, Purtzki Jacqueline, Rafay Mubeen, Sonnenberg Lyn K., Townley Ashleigh, Janzen Shannon, Foley Norine, Teasell Robert, Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Stroke rehabilitation practice guidelines, update 2015, 10.1177/1747493016643553
  74. Heller A, Wade D T, Wood V A, Sunderland A, Hewer R L, Ward E, Arm function after stroke: measurement and recovery over the first three months., 10.1136/jnnp.50.6.714
  75. Henderson Amy, Korner-Bitensky Nicol, Levin Mindy, Virtual Reality in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of its Effectiveness for Upper Limb Motor Recovery, 10.1310/tsr1402-52
  76. Hesse Stefan, Schmidt Henning, Werner Cordula, Bardeleben Anita, Upper and lower extremity robotic devices for rehabilitation and for studying motor control : , 10.1097/00019052-200312000-00010
  77. Hesse Stefan, Waldner Andreas, Mehrholz Jan, Tomelleri Christopher, Pohl Michael, Werner Cordula, Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Robot-Assisted Arm Training in Subacute Stroke Patients : An Exploratory, Randomized Multicenter Trial, 10.1177/1545968311413906
  78. Hesse S., Werner C., Pohl M., Rueckriem S., Mehrholz J., Lingnau M.L., Computerized Arm Training Improves the Motor Control of the Severely Affected Arm After Stroke: A Single-Blinded Randomized Trial in Two Centers, 10.1161/01.str.0000177865.37334.ce
  79. Hesse, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 25, 9 (2007)
  80. Hidler Joseph, Nichols Diane, Pelliccio Marlena, Brady Kathy, Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Stroke Impairment Using Robotic Devices, 10.1310/ryt5-62n4-ctvx-8jte
  81. Hikosaka O., Miyashita K., Miyachi S., Sakai K., Lu X., Differential Roles of the Frontal Cortex, Basal Ganglia, and Cerebellum in Visuomotor Sequence Learning, 10.1006/nlme.1998.3844
  82. Hummel Friedhelm C, Cohen Leonardo G, Non-invasive brain stimulation: a new strategy to improve neurorehabilitation after stroke?, 10.1016/s1474-4422(06)70525-7
  83. Hunter Jill Vanessa, Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Stroke : , 10.1097/00002142-200202000-00003
  84. Hwang Chang Ho, Seong Jin Wan, Son Dae-Sik, Individual finger synchronized robot-assisted hand rehabilitation in subacute to chronic stroke: a prospective randomized clinical trial of efficacy, 10.1177/0269215511431473
  85. Jackson Philip L., Lafleur Martin F., Malouin Francine, Richards Carol, Doyon Julien, Potential role of mental practice using motor imagery in neurologic rehabilitation, 10.1053/apmr.2001.24286
  86. Jahangir, Med. J. Malaysia, 62, 319 (2007)
  87. Jang Sung Ho, You Sung H., Hallett Mark, Cho Yun Woo, Park Chong-Mi, Cho Sang-Hyun, Lee Hyun-Young, Kim Tae-Hoon, Cortical Reorganization and Associated Functional Motor Recovery After Virtual Reality in Patients With Chronic Stroke: An Experimenter-Blind Preliminary Study, 10.1016/j.apmr.2005.04.015
  88. Johansson B. B., Current trends in stroke rehabilitation. A review with focus on brain plasticity : Stroke rehabilitation, 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01417.x
  89. Jonsson A-C, Prevalence and intensity of pain after stroke: a population based study focusing on patients' perspectives, 10.1136/jnnp.2005.079145
  90. Kaji Ryuji, Osako Yuka, Suyama Kazuaki, Maeda Toshio, Uechi Yasuyuki, Iwasaki Masaru, , Botulinum toxin type A in post-stroke upper limb spasticity, 10.1185/03007995.2010.497103
  91. Kaku Michelle, Simpson David, Spotlight on botulinum toxin and its potential in the treatment of stroke-related spasticity, 10.2147/dddt.s80804
  92. Kandel M., Beis J.-M., Le Chapelain L., Guesdon H., Paysant J., Non-invasive cerebral stimulation for the upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: A review, 10.1016/j.rehab.2012.09.001
  93. Kandel Sonia, Orliaguet Jean-Pierre, Viviani Paolo, Perceptual anticipation in handwriting: The role of implicit motor competence, 10.3758/bf03206917
  94. Kato P. M., Cole S. W., Bradlyn A. S., Pollock B. H., A Video Game Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Randomized Trial, 10.1542/peds.2007-3134
  95. Kelso J., Southard D., Goodman D, On the nature of human interlimb coordination, 10.1126/science.424729
  96. Khedr Eman M., Shawky Ola A., El-Hammady Dina H., Rothwell John C., Darwish Essam S., Mostafa Omar M., Tohamy Amal M., Effect of Anodal Versus Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Stroke Rehabilitation : A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, 10.1177/1545968313484808
  97. Kiper Paweł, Agostini Michela, Luque-Moreno Carlos, Tonin Paolo, Turolla Andrea, Reinforced Feedback in Virtual Environment for Rehabilitation of Upper Extremity Dysfunction after Stroke: Preliminary Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial, 10.1155/2014/752128
  98. Kocabas Hilal, Levendoglu Funda, Ozerbil Onder Murat, Yuruten Betigul, Complex regional pain syndrome in stroke patients : , 10.1097/mrr.0b013e3280146f57
  99. Kohler E., Hearing Sounds, Understanding Actions: Action Representation in Mirror Neurons, 10.1126/science.1070311
  100. Krakauer John W, Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation : , 10.1097/01.wco.0000200544.29915.cc
  101. Krakauer John W., Shadmehr Reza, Consolidation of motor memory, 10.1016/j.tins.2005.10.003
  102. Krebs, NeuroRehabilitation, 23, 81 (2008)
  103. Krichevets A. N., Sirotkina E. B., Yevsevicheva I. V., Zeldin L. M., Computer games as a means of movement rehabilitation, 10.3109/09638289509166635
  104. Kumar Rajeswari, Metter E Jeffrey, Mehta Arun J., Chew Tammy, Shoulder Pain in Hemiplegia : The Role of Exercise, 10.1097/00002060-199008000-00007
  105. Kwakkel, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 22, 281 (2004)
  106. Kwakkel G., Kollen B. J., van der Grond J., Prevo A. J.H., Probability of Regaining Dexterity in the Flaccid Upper Limb: Impact of Severity of Paresis and Time Since Onset in Acute Stroke, 10.1161/01.str.0000087172.16305.cd
  107. Kwakkel G., Kollen B., Twisk J., Impact of Time on Improvement of Outcome After Stroke, 10.1161/01.str.0000238594.91938.1e
  108. Lamy J.-C., Russmann H., Shamim E. A., Meunier S., Hallett M., Paired Associative Stimulation Induces Change in Presynaptic Inhibition of Ia Terminals in Wrist Flexors in Humans, 10.1152/jn.00761.2009
  109. Langhorne Peter, Bernhardt Julie, Kwakkel Gert, Stroke rehabilitation, 10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60325-5
  110. Langhorne P, Evidence behind stroke rehabilitation, 10.1136/jnnp.74.suppl_4.iv18
  111. Laver Kate E, George Stacey, Thomas Susie, Deutsch Judith E, Crotty Maria, Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation, 10.1002/14651858.cd008349.pub2
  112. Lefebvre Stéphanie, Dricot Laurence, Laloux Patrice, Gradkowski Wojciech, Desfontaines Philippe, Evrard Frédéric, Peeters André, Jamart Jacques, Vandermeeren Yves, Neural substrates underlying stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning after stroke, 10.1093/brain/awu336
  113. Lefebvre Stéphanie, Thonnard Jean-Louis, Laloux Patrice, Peeters André, Jamart Jacques, Vandermeeren Yves, Single Session of Dual-tDCS Transiently Improves Precision Grip and Dexterity of the Paretic Hand After Stroke, 10.1177/1545968313478485
  114. Lehericy S., Benali H., Van de Moortele P.-F., Pelegrini-Issac M., Waechter T., Ugurbil K., Doyon J., Distinct basal ganglia territories are engaged in early and advanced motor sequence learning, 10.1073/pnas.0502762102
  115. Lennon Sheila, Ashburn Ann, The Bobath concept in stroke rehabilitation: a focus group study of the experienced physiotherapists' perspective, 10.1080/096382800445461
  116. Liepert J., Tegenthoff M., Malin J.-P., Changes of cortical motor area size during immobilization, 10.1016/0924-980x(95)00194-p
  117. Liepert Joachim, Uhde Ina, Gräf Sylvia, Leidner Ottmar, Weiller Cornelius, Motor cortex plasticity during forced-use therapy in stroke patients: a preliminary study, 10.1007/s004150170207
  118. Lim J.-Y., Koh J.-H., Paik N.-J., Intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A Reduces Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Comparative Study Versus Intraarticular Triamcinolone Acetonide, 10.1161/strokeaha.107.484048
  119. Lindenberg R., Renga V., Zhu L. L., Nair D., Schlaug G., Bihemispheric brain stimulation facilitates motor recovery in chronic stroke patients, 10.1212/wnl.0b013e318202013a
  120. Lo Albert C., Guarino Peter D., Richards Lorie G., Haselkorn Jodie K., Wittenberg George F., Federman Daniel G., Ringer Robert J., Wagner Todd H., Krebs Hermano I., Volpe Bruce T., Bever Christopher T., Bravata Dawn M., Duncan Pamela W., Corn Barbara H., Maffucci Alysia D., Nadeau Stephen E., Conroy Susan S., Powell Janet M., Huang Grant D., Peduzzi Peter, Robot-Assisted Therapy for Long-Term Upper-Limb Impairment after Stroke, 10.1056/nejmoa0911341
  121. Luft Andreas R., McCombe-Waller Sandy, Whitall Jill, Forrester Larry W., Macko Richard, Sorkin John D., Schulz Jörg B., Goldberg Andrew P., Hanley Daniel F., Repetitive Bilateral Arm Training and Motor Cortex Activation in Chronic Stroke : A Randomized Controlled Trial, 10.1001/jama.292.15.1853
  122. Lum Peter S., Burgar Charles G., Shor Peggy C., Majmundar Matra, Van der Loos Machiel, Robot-assisted movement training compared with conventional therapy techniques for the rehabilitation of upper-limb motor function after stroke, 10.1053/apmr.2001.33101
  123. Lundström E., Smits A., Terént A., Borg J., Risk factors for stroke-related pain 1 year after first-ever stroke, 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02378.x
  124. Maher, Phys. Ther., 83, 713 (2003)
  125. McCrory P, Turner-Stokes L, Baguley IJ, De Graaff S, Katrak P, Sandanam J, Davies L, Munns M, Hughes A, Botulinum toxin A for treatment of upper limb spasticity following stroke: A multi-centre randomized placebo-controlled study of the effects on quality of life and other person-centred outcomes, 10.2340/16501977-0366
  126. Mead Gillian E, Hsieh Cheng-Fang, Lee Rebecca, Kutlubaev Mansur A, Claxton Anne, Hankey Graeme J, Hackett Maree L, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for stroke recovery, 10.1002/14651858.cd009286.pub2
  127. Mehrholz Jan, Hädrich Anja, Platz Thomas, Kugler Joachim, Pohl Marcus, Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving generic activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke, 10.1002/14651858.cd006876.pub3
  128. Mehrholz Jan, Platz Thomas, Kugler Joachim, Pohl Marcus, Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving arm function and activities of daily living after stroke, 10.1002/14651858.cd006876.pub2
  129. Meythaler Jay M., Vogtle Laura, Brunner Robert C., A Preliminary Assessment of the Benefits of the Addition of Botulinum Toxin A to a Conventional Therapy Program on the Function of People With Longstanding Stroke, 10.1016/j.apmr.2009.02.026
  130. Mikami Katsunaka, Jorge Ricardo E., Adams Harold P., Davis Patricia H., Leira Enrique C., Jang Mijin, Robinson Robert G., Effect of Antidepressants on the Course of Disability Following Stroke, 10.1097/jgp.0b013e31821181b0
  131. Mitchell Laura A., MacDonald Raymond A. R., Knussen Christina, An investigation of the effects of music and art on pain perception., 10.1037/1931-3896.2.3.162
  132. Mohammadianinejad Seyed Ehsan, Majdinasab Nastaran, Sajedi Seyed Aidin, Abdollahi Fahimeh, Moqaddam Mehdi Masoudi, Sadr Fatemeh, The Effect of Lithium in Post-Stroke Motor Recovery : A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial, 10.1097/wnf.0000000000000028
  133. Morganti Francesca, Gaggioli Andrea, Castelnuovo Gianluca, Bulla Daniel, Vettorello Marco, Riva Giuseppe, The Use of Technology-Supported Mental Imagery in Neurological Rehabilitation: A Research Protocol, 10.1089/109493103322278817
  134. Morris, Eura. Medicophys, 42, 257 (2006)
  135. Mudie M. Heather, Matyas Thomas A., Can simultaneous bilateral movement involve the undamaged hemisphere in reconstruction of neural networks damaged by stroke?, 10.1080/096382800297097
  136. Mudie M. H., Matyas T. A., Upper Extremity Retraining Following Stroke: Effects of Bilateral Practice, 10.1177/154596839601000304
  137. Nijland R. H. M., van Wegen E. E. H., Harmeling-van der Wel B. C., Kwakkel G., , Presence of Finger Extension and Shoulder Abduction Within 72 Hours After Stroke Predicts Functional Recovery: Early Prediction of Functional Outcome After Stroke: The EPOS Cohort Study, 10.1161/strokeaha.109.572065
  138. Nitsche Michael A., Cohen Leonardo G., Wassermann Eric M., Priori Alberto, Lang Nicolas, Antal Andrea, Paulus Walter, Hummel Friedhelm, Boggio Paulo S., Fregni Felipe, Pascual-Leone Alvaro, Transcranial direct current stimulation: State of the art 2008, 10.1016/j.brs.2008.06.004
  139. Nitsche Michael A, Liebetanz David, Lang Nicolas, Antal Andrea, Tergau Frithjof, Paulus Walter, Safety criteria for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans, 10.1016/s1388-2457(03)00235-9
  140. Nitsche M. A., Paulus W., Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation, 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00633.x
  141. Nitsche M. A., Paulus W., Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans, 10.1212/wnl.57.10.1899
  142. Norouzi-Gheidari Nahid, Archambault Philippe S., Fung Joyce, Effects of robot-assisted therapy on stroke rehabilitation in upper limbs: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, 10.1682/jrrd.2010.10.0210
  143. Oujamaa L., Relave I., Froger J., Mottet D., Pelissier J.-Y., Rehabilitation of arm function after stroke. Literature review, 10.1016/j.rehab.2008.10.003
  144. Page Stephen J, Levine Peter, Sisto Sue Ann, Johnston Mark V, Mental Practice Combined With Physical Practice for Upper-Limb Motor Deficit in Subacute Stroke, 10.1093/ptj/81.8.1455
  145. Paolucci Stefano, Antonucci Gabriella, Grasso Maria Grazia, Morelli Daniela, Troisi Elio, Coiro Paola, De Angelis Domenico, Rizzi Francesco, Bragoni Maura, Post-Stroke Depression, Antidepressant Treatment and Rehabilitation Results, 10.1159/000047714
  146. Patten Carolynn, Lexell Jan, Brown Heather E., Weakness and strength training in persons with poststroke hemiplegia: Rationale, method, and efficacy, 10.1682/jrrd.2004.03.0293
  147. Pignolo L, Robotics in neuro-rehabilitation, 10.2340/16501977-0434
  148. Piron L, Turolla A, Agostini M, Zucconi C, Cortese F, Zampolini M, Zannini M, Dam M, Ventura L, Battauz M, Tonin P, Exercises for paretic upper limb after stroke: A combined virtual-reality and telemedicine approach, 10.2340/16501977-0459
  149. Pollock Alex, Farmer Sybil E, Brady Marian C, Langhorne Peter, Mead Gillian E, Mehrholz Jan, van Wijck Frederike, Interventions for improving upper limb function after stroke, 10.1002/14651858.cd010820.pub2
  150. Pomeroy Valerie M, King Linda M, Pollock Alex, Baily-Hallam Alison, Langhorne Peter, Electrostimulation for promoting recovery of movement or functional ability after stroke, 10.1002/14651858.cd003241.pub2
  151. Poreisz Csaba, Boros Klára, Antal Andrea, Paulus Walter, Safety aspects of transcranial direct current stimulation concerning healthy subjects and patients, 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.01.004
  152. Quandt Fanny, Hummel Friedhelm C, The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review, 10.1186/2040-7378-6-9
  153. Ramachandran V. S., Rogers-Ramachandran D., Cobb S., Touching the phantom limb, 10.1038/377489a0
  154. Rehme Anne K., Eickhoff Simon B., Rottschy Claudia, Fink Gereon R., Grefkes Christian, Activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of motor-related neural activity after stroke, 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.10.023
  155. Reinkensmeyer David J., Wolbrecht Eric T., Chan Vicky, Chou Cathy, Cramer Steven C., Bobrow James E., Comparison of Three-Dimensional, Assist-as-Needed Robotic Arm/Hand Movement Training Provided with Pneu-WREX to Conventional Tabletop Therapy After Chronic Stroke : , 10.1097/phm.0b013e31826bce79
  156. Remsik Alexander, Young Brittany, Vermilyea Rebecca, Kiekhoefer Laura, Abrams Jessica, Evander Elmore Samantha, Schultz Paige, Nair Veena, Edwards Dorothy, Williams Justin, Prabhakaran Vivek, A review of the progression and future implications of brain-computer interface therapies for restoration of distal upper extremity motor function after stroke, 10.1080/17434440.2016.1174572
  157. Richards Lorie G., Stewart Kim C., Woodbury Michelle L., Senesac Claudia, Cauraugh James H., Movement-dependent stroke recovery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of TMS and fMRI evidence, 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.08.013
  158. Ridderikhoff A., Unraveling Interlimb Interactions Underlying Bimanual Coordination, 10.1152/jn.01077.2004
  159. Riener R., Nef T., Colombo G., Robot-aided neurorehabilitation of the upper extremities, 10.1007/bf02345116
  160. Ringman J. M., Saver J. L., Woolson R. F., Clarke W. R., Adams H. P., Frequency, risk factors, anatomy, and course of unilateral neglect in an acute stroke cohort, 10.1212/01.wnl.0000133011.10689.ce
  161. Riva Giuseppe, Virtual environments in clinical psychology., 10.1037/0033-3204.40.1-2.68
  162. Rizzolatti Giacomo, Craighero Laila, THE MIRROR-NEURON SYSTEM, 10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230
  163. Rizzolatti Giacomo, Fadiga Luciano, Gallese Vittorio, Fogassi Leonardo, Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions, 10.1016/0926-6410(95)00038-0
  164. Rizzolatti Giacomo, Sinigaglia Corrado, The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations, 10.1038/nrn2805
  165. Rodriguez-Fornells Antoni, Rojo Nuria, Amengual Julià L., Ripollés Pablo, Altenmüller Eckart, Münte Thomas F., The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients : Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06425.x
  166. Rosales Raymond L., Kong Keng He, Goh Khean Jin, Kumthornthip Witsanu, Mok Vincent Chung Tong, Delgado-De Los Santos Mary Mildred, Chua Karen Sui Geok, Abdullah Saini Jeffery bin Freddy, Zakine Benjamin, Maisonobe Pascal, Magis Axel, Wong K. S. Lawrence, Botulinum Toxin Injection for Hypertonicity of the Upper Extremity Within 12 Weeks After Stroke : A Randomized Controlled Trial, 10.1177/1545968311430824
  167. Rossi Simone, Hallett Mark, Rossini Paolo M., Pascual-Leone Alvaro, Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research, 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016
  168. Rossi C., Sallustio F., Di Legge S., Stanzione P., Koch G., Transcranial direct current stimulation of the affected hemisphere does not accelerate recovery of acute stroke patients : TDCS in acute stroke, 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2012.03703.x
  169. Rossini, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci., 22, 193 (2004)
  170. Sackley C., Brittle N., Patel S., Ellins J., Scott M., Wright C., Dewey M. E., The Prevalence of Joint Contractures, Pressure Sores, Painful Shoulder, Other Pain, Falls, and Depression in the Year After a Severely Disabling Stroke, 10.1161/strokeaha.108.518563
  171. Santamato Andrea, Micello Maria Francesca, Panza Francesco, Fortunato Francesca, Baricich Alessio, Cisari Carlo, Pilotto Alberto, Logroscino Giancarlo, Fiore Pietro, Ranieri Maurizio, Can botulinum toxin type A injection technique influence the clinical outcome of patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity? A randomized controlled trial comparing manual needle placement and ultrasound-guided injection techniques, 10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.016
  172. Saposnik G., Levin M., , Virtual Reality in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Meta-Analysis and Implications for Clinicians, 10.1161/strokeaha.110.605451
  173. Saposnik G., Teasell R., Mamdani M., Hall J., McIlroy W., Cheung D., Thorpe K. E., Cohen L. G., Bayley M., , Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Using Wii Gaming Technology in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial and Proof of Principle, 10.1161/strokeaha.110.584979
  174. Sathian K., Greenspan Arlene I., Wolf Steven L., Doing It with Mirrors: A Case Study of a Novel Approach to Neurorehabilitation, 10.1177/154596830001400109
  175. Schaechter Judith D, Motor rehabilitation and brain plasticity after hemiparetic stroke, 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2004.04.001
  176. Schlaug Gottfried, Renga Vijay, Transcranial direct current stimulation: a noninvasive tool to facilitate stroke recovery, 10.1586/17434440.5.6.759
  177. Schmidt, Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioral Emphasis, 3rd Edn (1999)
  178. Schuhfried O, Crevenna R, Fialka-Moser V, Paternostro-Sluga T, Non-invasive neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions: An educational review, 10.2340/16501977-0941
  179. Shaw L. C., Price C. I. M., van Wijck F. M. J., Shackley P., Steen N., Barnes M. P., Ford G. A., Graham L. A., Rodgers H., , Botulinum Toxin for the Upper Limb After Stroke (BoTULS) Trial: Effect on Impairment, Activity Limitation, and Pain, 10.1161/strokeaha.110.582197
  180. Sin HyeonHui, Lee GyuChang, Additional Virtual Reality Training Using Xbox Kinect in Stroke Survivors with Hemiplegia : , 10.1097/phm.0b013e3182a38e40
  181. Sivan M, O’Connor RJ, Makower S, Levesley M, Bhakta B, Systematic review of outcome measures used in the evaluation of robot-assisted upper limb exercise in stroke, 10.2340/16501977-0674
  182. Small Steven L., Buccino Giovanni, Solodkin Ana, The mirror neuron system and treatment of stroke, 10.1002/dev.20504
  183. Soekadar Surjo R., Birbaumer Niels, Slutzky Marc W., Cohen Leonardo G., Brain–machine interfaces in neurorehabilitation of stroke, 10.1016/j.nbd.2014.11.025
  184. Sommerfeld D. K., Spasticity After Stroke: Its Occurrence and Association With Motor Impairments and Activity Limitations, 10.1161/01.str.0000105386.05173.5e
  185. Stefan K., Formation of a Motor Memory by Action Observation, 10.1523/jneurosci.2282-05.2005
  186. Stefan K., Induction of plasticity in the human motor cortex by paired associative stimulation, 10.1093/brain/123.3.572
  187. Stein Joel, Robotics in Rehabilitation : Technology as Destiny, 10.1097/phm.0b013e31826bcbbd
  188. Stinear C.M., Byblow W.D., Ward S.H., An update on predicting motor recovery after stroke, 10.1016/j.rehab.2014.08.006
  189. Stinear C. M., Barber P. A., Smale P. R., Coxon J. P., Fleming M. K., Byblow W. D., Functional potential in chronic stroke patients depends on corticospinal tract integrity, 10.1093/brain/awl333
  190. Stoykov Mary Ellen, Lewis Gwyn N., Corcos Daniel M., Comparison of Bilateral and Unilateral Training for Upper Extremity Hemiparesis in Stroke, 10.1177/1545968309338190
  191. Subramanian Sandeep K., Lourenço Christiane B., Chilingaryan Gevorg, Sveistrup Heidi, Levin Mindy F., Arm Motor Recovery Using a Virtual Reality Intervention in Chronic Stroke : Randomized Control Trial, 10.1177/1545968312449695
  192. Swinnen Stephan P., Dounskaia Natalia, Duysens Jacques, Patterns of Bimanual Interference Reveal Movement Encoding within a Radial Egocentric Reference Frame, 10.1162/089892902317361976
  193. Taub E., Lum P. S., Hardin P., Mark V. W., Uswatte G., AutoCITE: Automated Delivery of CI Therapy With Reduced Effort by Therapists, 10.1161/01.str.0000166043.27545.e8
  194. Taub E., Uswatte G., King D. K., Morris D., Crago J. E., Chatterjee A., A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Upper Extremity After Stroke, 10.1161/01.str.0000206463.66461.97
  195. Teasell Robert W., Murie Fernandez Manuel, McIntyre Amanda, Mehta Swati, Rethinking the Continuum of Stroke Rehabilitation, 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.11.014
  196. Thaut Michael H., Demartin Martina, Sanes Jerome N., Brain Networks for Integrative Rhythm Formation, 10.1371/journal.pone.0002312
  197. Timmermans Annick AA, Lemmens Ryanne JM, Monfrance Maurice, Geers Richard PJ, Bakx Wilbert, Smeets Rob JEM, Seelen Henk AM, Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial, 10.1186/1743-0003-11-45
  198. Truelsen T., Piechowski-Jozwiak B., Bonita R., Mathers C., Bogousslavsky J., Boysen G., Stroke incidence and prevalence in Europe: a review of available data, 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01138.x
  199. Turner-Stokes L, Baguley IJ, De Graaff S, Katrak P, Davies L, McCrory P, Hughes A, Goal attainment scaling in the evaluation of treatment of upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin: A secondary analysis from a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 10.2340/16501977-0474
  200. Turolla Andrea, Dam Mauro, Ventura Laura, Tonin Paolo, Agostini Michela, Zucconi Carla, Kiper Pawel, Cagnin Annachiara, Piron Lamberto, Virtual reality for the rehabilitation of the upper limb motor function after stroke: a prospective controlled trial, 10.1186/1743-0003-10-85
  201. Vafadar Amir K., Côté Julie N., Archambault Philippe S., Effectiveness of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Improving Clinical Outcomes in the Upper Arm following Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, 10.1155/2015/729768
  202. van Dokkum L.E.H., Ward T., Laffont I., Brain computer interfaces for neurorehabilitation – its current status as a rehabilitation strategy post-stroke, 10.1016/j.rehab.2014.09.016
  203. van Kuijk Annette A., Pasman Jaco W., Hendricks Henk T., Zwarts Machiel J., Geurts Alexander C. H., Predicting Hand Motor Recovery in Severe Stroke: The Role of Motor Evoked Potentials in Relation to Early Clinical Assessment, 10.1177/1545968308317578
  204. Veldman M.P., Maffiuletti N.A., Hallett M., Zijdewind I., Hortobágyi T., Direct and crossed effects of somatosensory stimulation on neuronal excitability and motor performance in humans, 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.07.013
  205. Viana, NeuroRehabilitation, 34, 437 (2014)
  206. Wade D T, Langton-Hewer R, Wood V A, Skilbeck C E, Ismail H M, The hemiplegic arm after stroke: measurement and recovery., 10.1136/jnnp.46.6.521
  207. Wang Ling E., Fink Gereon R., Diekhoff Svenja, Rehme Anne K., Eickhoff Simon B., Grefkes Christian, Noradrenergic enhancement improves motor network connectivity in stroke patients, 10.1002/ana.22237
  208. Wang Ray-Yau, Chen Hsiu-I, Chen Chen-Yin, Yang Yea-Ru, Efficacy of Bobath versus orthopaedic approach on impairment and function at different motor recovery stages after stroke: a randomized controlled study, 10.1191/0269215505cr850oa
  209. Ward A, Wissel J, Borg J, Ertzgaard P, Herrmann C, Kulkarni J, Lindgren K, Reuter I, Sakel M, Säterö P, Sharma S, Wein T, Wright N, Fulford-Smith A, , Functional goal achievement in post-stroke spasticity patients: The BOTOX® Economic Spasticity Trial (BEST), 10.2340/16501977-1817
  210. Erik Ween Jon, Functional Imaging of Stroke Recovery: An Ecological Review from a Neural Network Perspective with an Emphasis on Motor Systems, 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2007.00180.x
  211. Welmer A.-K., Widén Holmqvist L., Sommerfeld D. K., Location and severity of spasticity in the first 1-2 weeks and at 3 and 18 months after stroke : Location and severity of spasticity, 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02915.x
  212. Whitall J., Waller S. M., Silver K. H. C., Macko R. F., Repetitive Bilateral Arm Training With Rhythmic Auditory Cueing Improves Motor Function in Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke, 10.1161/01.str.31.10.2390
  213. Wittenberg George F., Chen Robert, Ishii Kenji, Bushara Khalafalla O., Taub Edward, Gerber Lynn H., Hallett Mark, Cohen Leonardo G., Constraint-Induced Therapy in Stroke: Magnetic-Stimulation Motor Maps and Cerebral Activation, 10.1177/0888439002250456
  214. Wolf Steven L., Milton S. Byron, Reiss Aimee, Easley Kirk A., Shenvi Neeta V., Clark Patricia C., Further Assessment to Determine the Additive Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type A on an Upper Extremity Exercise Program to Enhance Function Among Individuals With Chronic Stroke but Extensor Capability, 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.10.026
  215. Yekutiel, Sensory Re-Education of the Hand after Stroke (2000)
  216. Yekutiel M, Guttman E, A controlled trial of the retraining of the sensory function of the hand in stroke patients., 10.1136/jnnp.56.3.241
  217. Zimerman M., Heise K. F., Hoppe J., Cohen L. G., Gerloff C., Hummel F. C., Modulation of Training by Single-Session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the Intact Motor Cortex Enhances Motor Skill Acquisition of the Paretic Hand, 10.1161/strokeaha.111.645382