User menu

Actual concepts in rhinosinusitis: A review of clinical presentations, inflammatory pathways, cytokine profiles, remodeling, and management

Bibliographic reference Eloy, Philippe ; Poirrier, A.L. ; De Dorlodot, C. ; Van Zele, T. ; Watelet, J.B. ; et. al. Actual concepts in rhinosinusitis: A review of clinical presentations, inflammatory pathways, cytokine profiles, remodeling, and management . In: Current Allergy & Asthma Reports, Vol. 11, no.2, p. 146-162 (2011)
Permanent URL http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/124089
  1. Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Mullol J, et al. European position paper on nasal polyps. Rhinology. 2007;45 Suppl 20:1–139.
  2. Van Cauwenberge P, Epidemiology of chronic rhinosinusitis, 10.1136/thorax.55.suppl_2.s20
  3. Sharp Hadley J., Denman David, Puumala Susan, Leopold Donald A., Treatment of Acute and Chronic Rhinosinusitis in the United States, 1999-2002, 10.1001/archotol.133.3.260
  4. Benson V, Marano MA. Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1992. Vital Health Stat. 1994;10(189):1–269.
  5. Bachert C, Meltzer EO. Effect of mometasone furoate nasal spray on quality of life of patients with acute rhinosinusitis. Rhinology. 2007;45:190–6.
  6. Desrosiers Martin, Diagnosis and Management of Acute Rhinosinusitis, 10.3810/pgm.2009.05.2006
  7. Brook I., Bacteriology of Acute and Chronic Ethmoid Sinusitis, 10.1128/jcm.43.7.3479-3480.2005
  8. van Cauwenberge P. B., Vander Mijnsbrugge A. -M., Ingels K. J. A. O., The microbiology of acute and chronic sinusits and otitis media: a review, 10.1007/bf02540108
  9. Anon JB, Jacobs MR, Poole MD, Ambrose PG, Benninger MS, Hadley JA, Craig WA, Sinus and Allergy Health Partnership. Antimicrobial treatment guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130(1 Suppl):1–45.
  10. MELTZER E, BACHERT C, STAUDINGER H, Treating acute rhinosinusitis: Comparing efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate nasal spray, amoxicillin, and placebo, 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.08.044
  11. MELTZER E, ORGEL H, BACKHAUS J, BUSSE W, DRUCE H, METZGER W, MITCHELL D, SEINER J, SHAPIRO G, VANBAVEL J, Intranal flunisolide spray as an adjunct to oral antibiotic therapy for sinusitis, 10.1016/0091-6749(93)90058-n
  12. Barlan Işil B, Erkan Elif, Bakir Mustafa, Berrak Su, Başaran M Müjdat, Intranasal Budesonide Spray as an Adjunct to Oral Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Sinusitis in Children, 10.1016/s1081-1206(10)63223-1
  13. Dolor Rowena J., Comparison of Cefuroxime With or Without Intranasal Fluticasone for the Treatment of RhinosinusitisThe CAFFS Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial, 10.1001/jama.286.24.3097
  14. BENNINGER M, ANON J, MABRY R, The medical management of rhinosinusitis, 10.1016/s0194-5998(97)70006-8
  15. Benninger MS. Antimicrobial update in rhinology: perspectives from the sinus & allergy health partnership. Symposium held during the 2003 American Rhinologic Society Scientific Meeting, September 20, 2003, Orlando, Florida.
  16. Dykewicz Mark S., Hamilos Daniel L., Rhinitis and sinusitis, 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.12.989
  17. Van Zele T., Claeys S., Gevaert P., Van Maele G., Holtappels G., Van Cauwenberge P., Bachert C., Differentiation of chronic sinus diseases by measurement of inflammatory mediators, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01225.x
  18. Bachert Claus, Gevaert Philippe, Holtappels Gabriele, Cuvelier Claude, van Cauwenberge Paul, Nasal Polyposis: From Cytokines to Growth, 10.2500/105065800781329573
  19. Robinson Simon, Douglas Richard, Wormald Peter-John, The relationship between atopy and chronic rhinosinusitis, 10.2500/ajr.2006.20.2907
  20. Pawankar Ruby, Nasal polyposis: an update : , 10.1097/00130832-200302000-00001
  21. Bateman ND, Fahy C, Woolford TJ. Nasal polyps: still more questions than answers. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:1–9.
  22. Fokkens W., Lund V., Bachert C., Clement P., Helllings P., Holmstrom M., Jones N., Kalogjera L., Kennedy D., Kowalski M., Malmberg H., Mullol J., Passali D., Stammberger H., Stierna P., EAACI Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps Executive Summary, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00830.x
  23. Polzehl D., Moeller P., Riechelmann H., Perner S., Distinct features of chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01132.x
  24. Niederfuhr Andrea, Kirsche Hanspeter, Riechelmann Herbert, Wellinghausen Nele, The Bacteriology of Chronic Rhinosinusitis With and Without Nasal Polyps, 10.1001/archoto.2008.531
  25. Adult Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Definitions, Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology, 10.1016/s0194-5998(03)01397-4
  26. Hashemi M, Mir Mohammad Sadeghi M, Omrani MR, Torabi MA. Microbiology and antimicrobial resistance in chronic resistant rhino sinusitis with or without polyp after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. J Res Med Sci (JRMS). 2005;10(3):167–71.
  27. Kilty Shaun J., Desrosiers Martin Y., The role of bacterial biofilms and the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis, 10.1007/s11882-008-0038-2
  28. Harvey RJ, Lund VJ. Biofilms and chronic rhinosinusitis: systematic review of evidence, current concepts and directions for research. Rhinology. 2007;45(1):3–13.
  29. Lee Jivianne T., Kennedy David W., Palmer James N., Feldman Michael, Chiu Alexander G., The incidence of concurrent osteitis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: A clinicopathological study, 10.2500/ajr.2006.20.2857
  30. Perloff Joel R., Gannon Frank H., Bolger William E., Montone Kathleen T., Orlandi Richard, Kennedy David W., Bone Involvement in Sinusitis: An Apparent Pathway for the Spread of Disease : , 10.1097/00005537-200012000-00023
  31. Van Zele Thibaut, Gevaert Philippe, Watelet Jean-Baptiste, Claeys Geert, Holtappels Gabriele, Claeys Cindy, van Cauwenberge Paul, Bachert Claus, Staphylococcus aureus colonization and IgE antibody formation to enterotoxins is increased in nasal polyposis, 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.07.013
  32. Ponikau Jens U., Sherris David A., Kern Eugene B., Homburger Henry A., Frigas Evangelos, Gaffey Thomas A., Roberts Glenn D., The Diagnosis and Incidence of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis, 10.4065/74.9.877
  33. Taylor Matthew J., Ponikau Jens U., Sherris David A., Kern Eugene B., Gaffey Thomas A., Kephart Gail, Kita Hirohito, Detection of Fungal Organisms in Eosinophilic Mucin Using a Fluorescein-Labeled Chitin-Specific Binding Protein, 10.1067/mhn.2002.128896
  34. Sherris David A., Ponikau Jens U., Kern Eugene B., Eosinophilic Mucin Rhinosinusitis : , 10.1097/00005537-200109000-00034
  35. Shin Seung-Heon, Ponikau Jens U., Sherris David A., Congdon David, Frigas Evangelo, Homburger Henry A., Swanson Mark C., Gleich Gerald J., Kita Hirohito, Chronic rhinosinusitis: An enhanced immune response to ubiquitous airborne fungi, 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.08.012
  36. Ponikau Jens U., Sherris David A., Kephart Gail M., Adolphson Cheryl, Kita Hirohito, The role of ubiquitous airborne fungi in chronic rhinosinusitis, 10.1007/s11882-005-0028-6
  37. Ponikau Jens U., Sherris David A., Kita Hirohito, Kern Eugene B., Intranasal antifungal treatment in 51 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, 10.1067/mai.2002.130051
  38. Ponikau Jens U., Sherris David A., Weaver Amy, Kita Hirohito, Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with intranasal amphotericin B: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial, 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.09.037
  39. Weschta Michael, Rimek Dagmar, Formanek Marc, Podbielski Andreas, Riechelmann Herbert, Effect of Nasal Antifungal Therapy on Nasal Cell Activation Markers in Chronic Rhinosinusitis, 10.1001/archotol.132.7.743
  40. Kennedy D W., Kuhn F A., Hamilos D L., Zinreich S J., Butler D, Warsi G, Pfister P J., Tavakkol A, Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with High-Dose Oral Terbinafine: A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study : , 10.1097/01.mlg.0000175683.81260.26
  41. Liang Kai-Li, Su Mao-Chang, Shiao Jiun-Yi, Tseng Hung-Cheng, Hsin Chung-Han, Lin Jen-Fu, Jiang Rong-San, Amphotericin B irrigation for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 10.2500/ajr.2008.22.3115
  42. Ebbens FA, Georgalas C, Rinia AB, van Drunen CM, Lund VJ, Fokkens WJ. The fungal debate: where do we stand today? Rhinology. 2007;45:178–89.
  43. Ferguson Berrylin J., Eosinophilic Mucin Rhinosinusitis: A Distinct Clinicopathological Entity : , 10.1097/00005537-200005000-00010
  44. Ramadan Hassan H., Quraishi Huma A., Allergic Mucin Sinusitis without Fungus, 10.2500/105065897782537269
  45. KATZENSTEIN A, SALE S, GREENBERGER P, Allergic sinusitis: a newly recognized form of sinusitis, 10.1016/0091-6749(83)90057-x
  46. GOURLEY D, WHISMAN B, JORGENSEN N, MARTIN M, REID M, Allergic sinusitis: Clinical and immunopathologic characteristics, 10.1016/0091-6749(90)90097-n
  47. Corey JP. Allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1992;25:225–30.
  48. Manning Scott C., Mabry Richard L., Schaefer Steven D., Close Lanny G., Evidence of IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity in Allergic Fungal Sinusitis : , 10.1288/00005537-199307000-00002
  49. DESHAZO R, SWAIN R, Diagnostic criteria for allergic fungal sinusitis, 10.1016/s0091-6749(95)70029-3
  50. Schubert Mark S., Goetz David W., Evaluation and treatment of allergic fungal sinusitis. I. Demographics and diagnosis, 10.1016/s0091-6749(98)70125-3
  51. Watelet J.-B., Van Zele T., Gjomarkaj M., Canonica G. W., Dahlen S.-E., Fokkens W., Lund V. J., Scadding G. K., Mullol J., Papadopoulos N., Bonini S., Kowalski M. L., Van Cauwenberge P., Bousquet J., , Tissue remodelling in upper airways: where is the link with lower airway remodelling?, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2006.01226.x
  52. Watelet Jean-Baptiste HPJ, Eloy Philippe H, Cauwenberge Paul B van, Drug management in chronic rhinosinusitis: identification of the needs, 10.2147/tcrm.2007.3.1.47
  53. Ponikau Jens U, Sherris David A, Kephart Gail M, Kern Eugene B, Gaffey Thomas A, Tarara James E, Kita Hirohito, Features of airway remodeling and eosinophilic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis, 10.1016/j.jaci.2003.08.009
  54. Pawankar Ruby, Nonaka Manabu, Masuno Satoru, Kimura Satoko, Current Concepts on the Pathomechanisms of Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps, Nasal Polyposis (2010) ISBN:9783642114113 p.185-190, 10.1007/978-3-642-11412-0_21
  55. Meltzer Eli O., Hamilos Daniel L., Hadley James A., Lanza Donald C., Marple Bradley F., Nicklas Richard A., Bachert Claus, Baraniuk James, Baroody Fuad M., Benninger Michael S., Brook Itzhak, Chowdhury Badrul A., Druce Howard M., Durham Stephen, Ferguson Berrylin, Gwaltney Jack M., Kaliner Michael, Kennedy David W., Lund Valerie, Naclerio Robert, Pawankar Ruby, Piccirillo Jay F., Rohane Patricia, Simon Ronald, Slavin Raymond G., Togias Alkis, Wald Ellen R., Zinreich S. James, Rhinosinusitis: Establishing definitions for clinical research and patient care, 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.09.029
  56. Watelet J. B., Bachert C., Claeys C., Van Cauwenberge P., Matrix metalloproteinases MMP-7, MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitor TIMP-1: expression in chronic sinusitis vs nasal polyposis, 10.1046/j.1398-9995.2003.00364.x
  57. Van Bruaene Nicholas, Pérez-Novo Claudina Angela, Basinski Tomasz M., Van Zele Thibaut, Holtappels Gabriele, De Ruyck Natalie, Schmidt-Weber Carsten, Akdis Cezmi, Van Cauwenberge Paul, Bachert Claus, Gevaert Philippe, T-cell regulation in chronic paranasal sinus disease, 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.02.018
  58. Li H.B., Cai K.M., Liu Z., Xia J.H., Zhang Y., Xu R., Xu G., Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) are increased in nasal polyps (NP) after treatment with intranasal steroid, 10.1016/j.clim.2008.07.031
  59. Eloy P, Watelet JB, Rombaux P, Daele J, Bertrand B. Management of chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps in adults. B-ENT. 2005;(Suppl. 1):65–74, quiz 75–76.
  60. Watelet JB, Eloy P, Van Cauwenberg P. Drug management in chronic rhinosinusitis: identification of the needs. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2007;3(1):47–57.
  61. Gillespie M. Boyd, Osguthorpe J. David, Pharmacologic management of chronic rhinosinusitis, alone or with nasal polyposis, 10.1007/s11882-004-0015-3
  62. Ulualp Seckin O., Toohill Robert J., Hoffmann Raymond, Shaker Reza, Possible Relationship of Gastroesophagopharyngeal Acid Reflux with Pathogenesis of Chronic Sinusitis, 10.2500/105065899781389777
  63. DiBaise John K., Olusola Bolarinwa F., Huerter James V., Quigley Eamonn M.M., Role of GERD in chronic resistant sinusitis: a prospective, open label, pilot trial, 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05598.x
  64. Borges Dinis Paulo, Concei????o Monteiro Maria, Luz Martins Maria, Silva Nuno, Gomes Augusto, Sinus Tissue Pharmacokinetics After Oral Administration of Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid : , 10.1097/00005537-200006000-00030
  65. Passali D, Mazzei T, Novelli A, et al. Amoxicillin/clavulanate in chronic rhinosinusitis: tissue and serum distribution. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 2001;55:259–64.
  66. Suzuki Hideaki, Ikeda Katsuhisa, Mode of Action of Long-Term Low-Dose Macrolide Therapy for Chronic Sinusitis in the Light of Neutrophil Recruitment, 10.2174/1568010023344832
  67. Wallwork Ben, Coman William, Chronic rhinosinusitis and eosinophils: do macrolides have an effect? : , 10.1097/00020840-200402000-00005
  68. Taccariello M, Parikh P, Darby Y, et al. Nasal douching in chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomised, single blind study comparing alkaline nasal douche and sterile sea water. Rhinology. 1999;37:29–32.
  69. Keith P., Nieminen J., Hollingworth K., Dolovich J., Efficacy and tolerability of fluticasone propionate nasal drops 400 mug once daily compared with placebo for the treatment of bilateral polyposis in adults, 10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00932.x
  70. Parikh A, Scadding GK, Darby Y, et al. Topical corticosteroids in chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using fluticasone proprionate aqueous nasal spray. Rhinology. 2001;39:75–9.
  71. Giger R, Pasche P, Cheseaux C, et al. Comparison of once-versus twice-daily use of beclomethasone diproprionate aqueous nasal spray in the treatment of allergic and non-allergic chronic rhinosinusitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;260:135–40.
  72. Dijkstra M. D., Ebbens F. A., Poublon R. M. L., Fokkens W. J., Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray does not influence the recurrence rate of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 1 year after functional endoscopic sinus surgery, 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.02044.x
  73. Lund VJ, Black JH, Szabo LZ, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of budesonide aqueous nasal spray in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Rhinology. 2004;42:57–62.
  74. Patel RS, Shaw RS, Wallace AM, et al. Efficacy and systemic tolerability of mometasone furoate and betamethasone sodium phosphate. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:866–71.
  75. AUKEMA A, MULDER P, FOKKENS W, Treatment of nasal polyposis and chronic rhinosinusitis with fluticasone propionate nasal drops reduces need for sinus surgery, 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.12.1144
  76. Damm Michael, Quante Gero, Jungehuelsing Markus, Stennert Eberhard, Impact of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Rhinosinusitis : , 10.1097/00005537-200202000-00020
  77. Chiu Alexander G., Kennedy David W., Surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis: a review of the evidence, 10.1007/s11882-004-0016-2
  78. Iro H, Mayr S, Wallisch C, et al. Endoscopic sinus surgery: its subjective medium-term outcome in chronic rhinosinusitis. Rhinology. 2004;42:200–6.
  79. Dhong Hun-Jong, Jung Yoo Seok, Chung Seung-Kyu, Choi Dong-Chull, Effect of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Asthmatic Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis, 10.1067/mhn.2001.111596
  80. Dunlop Gillian, Scadding Glenis K, Lund Valerie J., The Effect of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Asthma: Management of Patients With Chronic Rhinosinusitis, Nasal Polyposis, and Asthma, 10.2500/105065899782102809
  81. Goldstein Marc F., Grundfast Steven K., Dunsky Eliot H., Dvorin Donald J., Lesser Ray, Effect of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on Bronchial Asthma Outcomes, 10.1001/archotol.125.3.314
  82. Ikeda Katsuhisa, Tamura Gen, Shimomura Akira, Suzuki Hideaki, Nakabayashi Seiichiro, Tanno Noriko, Oshima Takeshi, Takasaka Tomonori, Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Improves Pulmonary Function in Patients with Asthma Associated with Chronic Sinusitis, 10.1177/000348949910800407
  83. SENIOR BRENT A., KENNEDY DAVID W., TANABODEE JIRAYU, KROGER HANS, HASSAB MOHAMMED, LANZA DONALD C., Long-term impact of functional endoscopic sinus surgery on asthma☆☆☆★, 10.1016/s0194-5998(99)70127-0
  84. Jorrissen M, Bachert C. Effect of corticosteroids on wound healing after endoscopic sinus surgery. Rhinology. 2009;47(3):280–6.
  85. Verbruggen Katia, Van Cauwenberge Paul, Bachert Claus, Anti-IgE for the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis – and Eventually Nasal Polyps?, 10.1159/000155739
  86. Bachert Claus, Zhang Nan, Patou Joke, van Zele Thibaut, Gevaert Philippe, Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease : , 10.1097/aci.0b013e3282f4178f
  87. Pérez-Novo Claudina A., Kowalski Marek L., Kuna Piotr, Ptasinska Anetta, Holtappels Gabriele, van Cauwenberge Paul, Gevaert Philippe, Johannson Sgo, Bachert Claus, Aspirin Sensitivity and IgE Antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins in Nasal Polyposis: Studies on the Relationship, 10.1159/000076832
  88. Bauchau V., Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe, 10.1183/09031936.04.00013904
  89. Vignola Antonio M., Mirabella Franco, Costanzo Giorgio, Di Giorgi Rossana, Gjomarkaj Mark, Bellia Vincenzo, Bonsignore Giovanni, Airway Remodeling in Asthma, 10.1378/chest.123.3_suppl.417s
  90. Coste A., Brugel L., Maître B., Boussat S., Papon J.F., Wingerstmann L., Peynègre R., Escudier E., Inflammatory cells as well as epithelial cells in nasal polyps express vascular endothelial growth factor, 10.1034/j.1399-3003.2000.15b24.x
  91. Perez-Novo CA, Kowalski ML, Kuna P, Ptasinska A, Holtappels G, Van Cauwenberge P, et al. Aspirin sensitivity and IgE antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in nasal polyposis: studies on the relationship. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;133:255–60.
  92. Bachert C., Wagenmann M., Rudack C., Höpken K., Hiltebrandt M., Wang D., Cauwenberge P., The role of cytokines in infectious sinusitis and nasal polyposis, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03767.x
  93. Bachert Claus, Gevaert Philippe, Holtappels Gabriele, van Cauwenberge Paul, Mediators in nasal polyposis, 10.1007/s11882-002-0088-9
  94. Nonaka Manabu, Eotaxin Synthesis by Nasal Polyp Fibroblasts, 10.1080/00016489950180478
  95. Nonaka Manabu, Pawankar Ruby, Saji Fusako, Yagi Toshiaki, Distinct Expression of RANTES and GM–CSF by Lipopolysaccharide in Human Nasal Fibroblasts but Not in Other Airway Fibroblasts, 10.1159/000024209
  96. Hans-Uwe S, Yousefi S, Schranz C, Schapowal A, Bachert C, Blaser K. Direct demonstration of delayed eosinophil apoptosis as a mechanism causing tissue eosinophilia. J Immunol. 1997;158:3902–8.
  97. Chao Siew-Shuen, Graham Scott M., Brown Christopher L., Kline Joel N., Hussain Iftikhar, Cysteinyl Leukotriene 1 Receptor Expression in Nasal Polyps, 10.1177/000348940611500513
  98. Bachert Claus, Gevaert Philippe, Holtappels Gabriele, Johansson S.G.O., van Cauwenberge Paul, Total and specific IgE in nasal polyps is related to local eosinophilic inflammation, 10.1067/mai.2001.112374
  99. Bachert Claus, Gevaert Philippe, Howarth Peter, Holtappels Gabriele, van Cauwenberge Paul, Johansson S.G.O., IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in serum is related to severity of asthma, 10.1016/s0091-6749(03)70044-x
  100. Zhang Nan, Holtappels Gabriele, Claeys Cindy, Huang Ganquan, Van Cauwenberge Paul, Bachert Claus, Pattern of inflammation and impact of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in nasal polyps from southern China, 10.2500/ajr.2006.20.2887
  101. Bachert Claus, Watelet Jean-Baptiste, Gevaert Philippe, Van Cauwenberge Paul, Pharmacological Management of Nasal Polyposis : , 10.2165/00003495-200565110-00006
  102. Assanasen Paraya, Naclerio Robert M., Medical and surgical management of nasal polyps : , 10.1097/00020840-200102000-00007
  103. Scadding Glenis K., Comparison of medical and surgical treatment of nasal polyposis, 10.1007/s11882-002-0090-2
  104. Hissaria Pravin, Smith William, Wormald Peter J., Taylor James, Vadas Mathew, Gillis David, Kette Frank, Short course of systemic corticosteroids in sinonasal polyposis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with evaluation of outcome measures, 10.1016/j.jaci.2006.03.012
  105. Van Camp P, Clement PAR. Results of oral steroid treatment in nasal polyposis. Rhinology. 1994;32:5–9.
  106. Lildholdt T., Rundcrantz H., Bende M., Larsen K., Glucocorticoid Treatment for Nasal Polyps: The Use of Topical Budesonide Powder, Intramuscular Betamethasone, and Surgical Treatment, 10.1001/archotol.1997.01900060037006
  107. Derendorf H., Meltzer E. O., Molecular and clinical pharmacology of intranasal corticosteroids: clinical and therapeutic implications, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01750.x
  108. Holmberg K, Juliusson S, Balder B, Smith DL, Richards DH, Karlsson G, Fluticasone Propionate Aqueous Nasal Spray in the Treatment of Nasal Polyposis, 10.1016/s1081-1206(10)63180-8
  109. Lund Valerie J., Flood Joanne, Sykes Andrew P., Richards David H., Effect of Fluticasone in Severe Polyposis, 10.1001/archotol.124.5.513
  110. LILDHOLDT T., RUNDCRANTZ H., LINDQVIST N., Efficacy of topical corticosteroid powder for nasal polyps: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of budesonide, 10.1111/j.1365-2273.1995.tb00007.x
  111. Leiberman Alberto, Ohki Motofumi, Cole Philip, The Open Mouth and Oronasal Breathing, 10.2500/105065891781976809
  112. Penttila, Poulsen, Hollingworth, Holmstrom, Dose-related efficacy and tolerability of fluticasone propionate nasal drops 400 mug once daily and twice daily in the treatment of bilateral nasal polyposis: a placebo-controlled randomized study in adult patients, 10.1046/j.1365-2222.2000.00695.x
  113. Gotfried Mark H., Macrolides for the Treatment of Chronic Sinusitis, Asthma, and COPD, 10.1378/chest.125.2_suppl.52s
  114. Cervin Anders, The Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erythromycin and its Derivatives, with Special Reference to Nasal Polyposis and Chronic Sinusitis, 10.1080/000164801300006326
  115. Matsune Shoji, Sun Dong, Ohori Junichiro, Nishimoto Kengo, Fukuiwa Tatsuya, Ushikai Masato, Kurono Yuichi, Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor by Macrolides in Cultured Fibroblasts from Nasal Polyps : , 10.1097/01.mlg.0000177031.06112.50
  116. Yamada Takechiyo, Fujieda Shigeharu, Mori Shigehito, Yamamoto Hideyuki, Saito Hitoshi, Macrolide Treatment Decreased the Size of Nasal Polyps and IL-8 levels in Nasal Lavage, 10.2500/105065800782102717
  117. Nonaka Manabu, Pawankar Ruby, Tomiyama Shunichi, Vagi Toshiaki, A Macrolide Antibiotic, Roxithromycin, Inhibits the Growth of Nasal Polyp Fibroblasts, 10.2500/105065899782102791
  118. Iino Yukiko, Kojima Chie, Sasaki Yukako, Miyazawa Tetsuo, Effect of Macrolides on the Expression of HLA-DR and Costimulatory Molecules on Antigen-Presenting Cells in Nasal Polyps, 10.1177/000348940111000512
  119. Ichimura Keiichi, Shimazaki Yuh-Ichi, Ishibashi Toshio, Higo Ryuzaburo, Effect of New Macrolide Roxithromycin upon Nasal Polyps Associated with Chronic Sinusitis, 10.1016/s0385-8146(96)80008-3
  120. Wallwork Ben, Coman William, Mackay-Sim Alan, Greiff Lennart, Cervin Anders, A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Macrolide in the Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis : , 10.1097/01.mlg.0000191560.53555.08
  121. Holgate S. T., Canonica G. W., Simons F. E. R., Taglialatela M., Tharp M., Timmerman H., Yanai K., , Consensus group on new-generation antihistamines (CONGA): present status and recommendations, 10.1046/j.1365-2222.2003.01769.x
  122. Keith Paul K., Conway Mary, Evans Susan, Wong Dennis A., Jordana Gloria, Pengelly David, Dolovich Jerry, Nasal polyps: Effects of seasonal allergen exposure, 10.1016/s0091-6749(94)70068-0
  123. Crampette I., Mainprice B., Bloom M., Bousauet J., Campbell A. M., Inhibition of mediator and cytokine release from dispersed nasal polyp cells by terfenadine, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1996.tb04622.x
  124. Campbell Alison, Michel François-Bernard, Bremard-Oury Clotilde, Crampette Louis, Bousquet Jean, Overview of Allergic Mechanisms : Ebastine Has More Than an Antihistamine Effect, 10.2165/00003495-199600521-00005
  125. Carayol N., Crampette L., Mainprice B., Ben-Soussen Paul, Verrecchia M., Bousquet J., Lebel B., Inhibition of mediator and cytokine release from dispersed nasal polyp cells by mizolastine, 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2002.23452.x
  126. Vignola A. M., Crampette L., Mondain M., Sauvère G., Czarlewski W., Bousquet J., Campbell A.M., Inhibitory activity of loratadine and descarboethoxyloratadine on expression of ICAM-1 and HLA-DR by nasal epithelial cells, 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1995.tb01133.x
  127. Haye Rolf, Aanesen Jens P., Burtin Bernard, Donnelly Fergal, Duby Christian, The effect of cetirizine on symptoms and signs of nasal polyposis, 10.1017/s0022215100142422
  128. Alobid Isam, Cardelús Sara, Picado Cèsar, Mullol Joaquim, Antileukotrienes in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis, 10.1586/1744666x.4.3.331
  129. Di Rienzo L, Artuso A, Cerqua N. Antileukotrienes in the prevention of postoperative recurrence of nasal polyposis in ASA syndrome. Acta Otolaryngol Ital. 2000;20(5):336–42.
  130. STEVENSON D, HANKAMMER M, MATHISON D, CHRISTIANSEN S, SIMON R, Aspirin desensitization treatment of aspirin-sensitive patients with rhinosinusitis-asthma: Long-term outcomes, 10.1016/s0091-6749(96)70123-9
  131. Stevenson Donald D., Aspirin Desensitization in Patients with AERD, 10.1385/criai:24:2:159
  132. Fiotti Nicola, Altamura Nicola, Moretti Michèle, Wassermann Stella, Zacchigna Serena, Farra Rossella, Dapas Barbara, Consoloni Lara, Giacca Mauro, Grassi Gabriele, Giansante Carlo, Short Term Effects of Doxycycline on Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9, 10.1007/s10557-008-6150-7
  133. Van Zele Thibaut, Gevaert Philippe, Holtappels Gabriele, Beule Achim, Wormald Peter John, Mayr Susanne, Hens Greet, Hellings Peter, Ebbens Fenna A., Fokkens Wytske, Van Cauwenberge Paul, Bachert Claus, Oral steroids and doxycycline: Two different approaches to treat nasal polyps, 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.02.020
  134. BACHERT C, WAGENMANN M, HAUSER U, RUDACK C, IL-5 synthesis is upregulated in human nasal polyp tissue1, 10.1016/s0091-6749(97)80019-x
  135. Gevaert P., Bachert C., Holtappels G., Novo C. P., Van der Heyden J., Fransen L., Depraetere S., Walter H., Cauwenberge P., Tavernier J., Enhanced soluble interleukin-5 receptor alpha expression in nasal polyposis, 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2003.00110.x
  136. Penn Renee, Mikula Suzette, The role of anti-IgE immunoglobulin therapy in nasal polyposis: A pilot study, 10.2500/ajr.2007.21.3060
  137. Mendelson MG, Gross CW. Soft-tissue shavers in pediatric sinus surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1997;30:443–9.
  138. Setliff Reuben C., Parsons David S., The "Hummer": New Instrumentation for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, 10.2500/105065894781874232
  139. Zweig Julie L., Schaitkin Barry M., Fan Chun-Yang, Barnes E. Leon, Histopathology of Tissue Samples Removed Using the Microdebrider Technique: Implications for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, 10.2500/105065800781602902
  140. BERNSTEIN JOSEPH M., LEBOWITZ RICHARD A., JACOBS JOSEPH B., Initial report on postoperative healing after endoscopic sinus surgery with the microdebrider☆☆☆★, 10.1016/s0194-5998(98)70272-4
  141. Anon Jack B., Computer-aided endoscopic sinus surgery, 10.1097/00005537-199807000-00001
  142. Kacker Ashutosh, Tabaee Abtin, Anand Vijay, Computer-Assisted Surgical Navigation in Revision Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, 10.1016/j.otc.2004.10.021
  143. Caversaccio M., Zheng G., Nolte L.-P., Computerassistierte Chirurgie der Nasennebenhöhlen und der vorderen Schädelbasis, 10.1007/s00106-008-1705-2
  144. Metson Ralph B., Gliklich Richard E., Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis : Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis, 10.1097/00005537-200003002-00007
  145. Keleş Nesil, Ilicali Ömer Cenker, Değer Kemal, Objective and Subjective Assessment of Nasal Obstruction in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, 10.2500/105065898780182408
  146. ROWE-JONES J.M., MACKAY I.S., A prospective study of olfaction following endoscopic sinus surgery with adjuvant medical treatment, 10.1046/j.1365-2273.1997.00004.x
  147. Hafner Bernal, Davris Spiros, Riechelmann Herbert, Mann Wolf J., Amedee Ronald G., Endonasal Sinus Surgery Improves Mucociliary Transport in Severe Chronic Sinusitis, 10.2500/105065897781446612
  148. Kaluskar SK. Pre- and postoperative mucociliary clearance in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Ear Nose Throat J. 1997;76:884–6.
  149. Elwany S., Hisham M., Gamaee R., The effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic sinusitis, 10.1007/s004050050109
  150. Delak KW, Stoll W. Olfactory function after functional endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. Rhinology. 1998;36:15–9.
  151. Shin Seung Heon, Park Jae Yul, Sohn Jin Ho, Clinical Value of Olfactory Function Tests after Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Short-term Result, 10.2500/105065899781389894
  152. Amar YG, Frenkiel S, Sobol SE. Outcome analysis of endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis in patients having Samter’s triad. J Otolaryngol. 2000;29:7–12.
  153. Hideo Nakamura, Masaru Kawasaki, Yu, Effects of Sinus Surgery on Asthma in Aspirin Triad Patients, 10.1080/00016489950180856
  154. Hartwig S., Lindén M., Vargö A.-K., Lindqvist N., Budesonide nasal spray as prophylactic treatment after polypectomy, 10.1017/s0022215100104372
  155. Virolainen E, Puhakka H. The effect of intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate on the recurrence of nasal polyps after ethmoidectomy. Rhinology. 1980;18(1):9–18.
  156. Stjärne Pär, Olsson Petter, Ålenius Martin, Use of Mometasone Furoate to Prevent Polyp Relapse After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, 10.1001/archoto.2009.2
  157. LANZA D, KENNEDY D, Adult rhinosinusitis defined, 10.1016/s0194-5998(97)70001-9