User menu

Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club.

Bibliographic reference Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre ; Goemaere, Stefan ; Boonen, Steven ; Body, Jean-Jacques ; Kaufman, Jean-Marc ; et. al. Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club.. In: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, Vol. 17, no. 1, p. 8-19 (2006)
Permanent URL http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/10351
  1. van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Abenhaim L, Zhang B, Cooper C (2000) Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures. J Bone Miner Res 15:993–1000
  2. Hahn TJ, Boisseau VC, Avioli LV (1974) Effect of chronic corticosteroid administration on diaphyseal and metaphyseal bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39:274–282
  3. Reid IR, Evans MC, Wattie DJ, Ames R, Cundy TF (1992) Bone mineral density of the proximal femur and lumbar spine in glucocorticoid-treated asthmatic patients. Osteoporosis Int 2:103–105
  4. Reid DM, Kennedy NSJ, Smith MA, Tothill P, Nuki G (1982) Total body calcium in rheumatoid arthritis : effects of disease activity and corticosteroid treatment. Br Med J 285:330–332
  5. Van Staa TP, Laan RF, Barton IP, Cohen S, Reid DM, Cooper C (2003) Bone density threshold and other predictors of vertebral fracture in patients receiving oral glucocorticoid therapy. Arthritis Rheum 48:3224–3229
  6. Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A, Johnell O, de Laet C, Melton LJ III, Tenenhouse A, Reeve J, Silman AJ, Pols HAP, Eisman JA, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D (2004) A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res 19:893–899
  7. Luengo M, Picado C, Del Rio L, Guañabens N, Montserrat JM, Setoain J (1991) Vertebral fractures in steroid dependent asthma and involutional osteoporosis: a comparative study. Thorax 46:803–806
  8. Saville PD, Kharmosh O (1967) Osteoporosis of rheumatoid arthritis: influence of age, sex and corticosteroids. Arthritis Rheum 10:423–430
  9. Kozower M, Veatch L, Kaplan MM (1974) Decreased clearance of prednisolone, a factor in the development of corticosteroid side effects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:407–412
  10. Stevens A, Ray DW, Zeggini E, John S, Richards HL, Griffiths CEM, Donn R (2004) Glucocorticoid sensitivity is determined by a specific glucocorticoid receptor haplotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:892–897
  11. Prummel MF, Wiersinga WM, Lips P, Sanders GTB, Sauerwein HP (1991) The course of biochemical parameters of bone turnover during treatment with corticosteroids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72:382–386
  12. Bressot C, Meunier PJ, Chapuy MC, Lejeune E, Edouard C, Darby AJ (1979) Histomorphometric profile, pathophysiology and reversibility of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 1:303–311
  13. Morris HA, Need AG, O’Loughlin PD, Horowitz M, Bridges A, Nordin BEC (1990) Malabsorption of calcium in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 46:305–308
  14. Suzuki Y, Ichikawa Y, Saito E, Homma M (1983) Importance of increased urinary calcium excretion in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients under glucocorticoid therapy. Metabolism 32:151–156
  15. Weinstein RS, Jilka RL, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC (1998) Inhibition of osteoblastogenesis and promotion of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes by glucocorticoids. Potential mechanisms of their deleterious effects on bone. J Clin Invest 102:274–282
  16. Hofbauer LC, Gori F, Riggs BL, Lacey DL, Dunstan CR, Spelsberg TC, Khosla S (1999) Stimulation of osteoprotegerin ligand and inhibition of osteoprotegerin production by glucocorticoids in human osteoblastic lineage cells: potential paracrine mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Endocrinology 140:4382–4389
  17. Montecucco C, Caporali R, Caprotti P et al (1992) Sex hormones and bone metabolism in postmenopausal rheumatoid arthritis treated with two different glucocorticoids. J Rheumatol 19:1895–1900
  18. MacADAMS MICHAEL R., Reduction of Serum Testosterone Levels During Chronic Glucocorticoid Therapy, 10.7326/0003-4819-104-5-648
  19. Hampson G, Bhargava N, Cheung J et al (2002) Low circulating estradiol and adrenal androgens concentrations in men on glucocorticoids: a potential contributory factor in steroid-induced osteoporosis. Metabolism 51:1458–1462
  20. World Health Organisation (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO Study Group. World Health Organ Tech. Rep Ser 843:1–129
  21. Abadie EC, Devogelaer J-P, Ringe JD, Ethgen DJ, Bouvenot GM, Kreutz G, Laslop A, Orloff JJ, Vanderauwera PM, Delmas PD, Dere WH, Branco J, Altman RD, Avouac BP, Menkes CJ, Vanhaelst L, Mitlak BH, Tsouderos Y, Reginster J-YL (2005) Recommendations for the registration of agents to be used in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: updated recommendations from the Group for the Respect of Ethics and Excellence in Science. Semin Arthritis Rheum 35:1–4
  22. Bone and Tooth Society of Great Britain, Royal College of Physicians, and National Osteoporosis Society (2003) Guidelines on the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Royal College of Physicians, London
  23. Sambrook PN (2005) How to prevent steroid induced osteoporosis. Ann Rheum Dis 64:176–178
  24. Laan Roland F. J. M., Low-Dose Prednisone Induces Rapid Reversible Axial Bone Loss in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis : A Randomized, Controlled Study, 10.7326/0003-4819-119-10-199311150-00001
  25. Boonen S, Body J-J, Boutsen Y, Devogelaer J-P, Goemaere S, Kaufman J-M, Rozenberg S, Reginster J-Y (2005) Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club. Osteoporosis Int 16:239–254
  26. Askari A, Vignos PJ Jr, Moskowitz RW (1976) Steroid myopathy in connective tissue disease. Am J Med 61:485–492
  27. van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Abenhaim L, Zhang B, Cooper C (2000) Oral corticosteroids and fracture risk: relationship to daily and cumulative doses. Rheumatology 39:1383–1389
  28. Gluck OS, Murphy WA, Hahn TJ, Hahn B (1981) Bone loss in adults receiving alternate day glucocorticoid therapy : a comparison with daily therapy. Arthritis Rheum 24:892–898
  29. Rüegsegger P, Medici TC, Anliker M (1983) Corticosteroid-induced bone loss. A longitudinal study of alternate day therapy in patients with bronchial asthma using quantitative computed tomography. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 25:615–620
  30. Avgerinos PC, Cutler GB, Tsokos GC, Gold PW, Feuillan P, Gallucci WT, Pillemer SR, Loriaux DL, Chrousos GP (1987) Dissociation between cortisol and adrenal androgen secretion in patients receiving alternate day prednisone therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:24–29
  31. Richy F, Bousquet J, Ehrlich GE, Meunier PJ, Israel E, Morii H, Devogelaer JP, Peel N, Haim M, Bruyere O, Reginster JY (2003) Inhaled corticosteroids effects on bone in asthmatic and COPD patients: a quantitative systematic review. Osteoporosis Int 14:179–190
  32. Van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Cooper C (2001) Use of inhaled corticosteroids and risk of fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:581–588
  33. Frediani B, Falsetti P, Bisogno S, Baldi F, Acciai C, Filippou G, Bacarelli MR, Filipponi P, Galeazzi M, Marcolongo R (2004) Effects of high dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy on bone mass and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-month randomized prospective controlled study. J Rheumatol 31:1083–1087
  34. Boutsen Y, Jamart J, Esselinckx W, Stoffel M, Devogelaer J-P (1997) Primary prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with intermittent intravenous pamidronate : a randomized trial. Calcif Tissue Int 61:266–271
  35. Boutsen Y, Jamart J, Esselinckx W, Devogelaer JP (2001) Primary prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with intravenous pamidronate and calcium: a prospective controlled 1-year study comparing a single infusion, an infusion given once every 3 months, and calcium alone. J Bone Miner Res 16:104–112
  36. Richy F, Ethgen O, Bruyere O, Reginster J-Y (2004) Efficacy of alphacalcidol and calcitriol in primary and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analysis of their effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate. Osteoporos Int 15:301–310
  37. Richy F, Schacht E, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, Gourlay M, Reginster J-Y (2005) Viamin D analogs versus native vitamin D in preventing bone loss and osteoporosis-related fractures: a comparative meta-analysis. Calcif Tissue Int 76:176–186
  38. Rickers H, Deding A, Christiansen C, Rodbro P, Naestoft J (1982) Corticosteroid-induced osteopenia and vitamin D metabolism. Effect of vitamin D2, calcium phosphate and sodium fluoride administration. Clin Endocrinol 16:409–415
  39. Worth H, Stammen D, Keck E, Therapy of steroid-induced bone loss in adult asthmatics with calcium, vitamin D, and a diphosphonate., 10.1164/ajrccm.150.2.8049820
  40. Vogelsang H, Ferenci P, Resch H, Kiss A, Gangl A (1995) Prevention of bone mineral loss in patients with Crohn’s disease by long-term oral vitamin D supplementation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:605–614
  41. Bernstein CN, Seeger LL, Anton PA, Artininian L, Geffrey S, Goodman W, Belin TR, Shanahan F (1996) A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation for decreased bone density in corticosteroid-using patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 10:777–786
  42. Buckley Lenore M., Calcium and Vitamin D3Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in the Spine Secondary to Low-Dose Corticosteroids in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial, 10.7326/0003-4819-125-12-199612150-00004
  43. Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bianchi F, Cividino A, Pillersdorf S, Sebaldt RJ, Tugwell P, Gordon M, Steele M, Webber C, Goldsmith CH (1996) Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis: a 3 year follow-up. J Rheumatol 23:995–1000
  44. Bijlsma JWJ, Raymakers JA, Mosch C, Hoekstra A, Derksen RHWM, Baart de la Faille H, Duursma SA (1988) Effect of oral calcium and vitamin D on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia. Clin Exp Rheumatol 6:113–119
  45. Di Munno O, Beghe F, Favini P, Di Giuseppe P, Pontrandolfo A, Occhipinti G, Pasero G (1989) Prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia: effect of oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium. Clin Rheumatol 8:202–207
  46. Devogelaer JP, Esselinckx W, Nagant de Deuxchaisnes C (1994) Calcidiol protects bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated by low dose glucocorticoids. In: Norman AW, Bouillon R, Thomasset M (eds) Vitamin D. A pluripotent steroid hormone: structural studies, molecular endocrinology and clinical applications. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 855–856
  47. Talalaj M, Gradowska L, Marcinowska-Suchowierska E, Durlik M, Gaciong Z, Lao M (1996) Efficiency of preventive treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium in kidney transplant patients. Transplant Proc 28:3485–3487
  48. Garcia-Delgado I, Prieto S, Gil-Fraguas L, Robles E, Rufilanchas JJ, Hawkins F (1997) Calcitonin, etidronate, and calcidiol treatment in bone loss after cardiac transplantation. Calcif Tissue Int 60:155–159
  49. Dykman TR, Haralson KM, Gluck OS, Murphy WA, Teitelbaum SL, Hahn TJ, Hahn BH (1984) Effect of oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium on glucocorticoid-induced osteopenia in patients with rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum 27:1336–1343
  50. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, Kempler S, Nguyen T, Pocock N, Eisman J (1993) Prevention of corticosteroid osteoporosis. A comparison of calcium, calcitriol, and calcitonin. N Engl J Med 328:1747–1752
  51. Sambrook P, Henderson NK, Keogh A, Macdonald P, Glanville A, Spratt P, Bergin P, Ebeling P, Eisman J (2000) Effect of calcitriol on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation. J Bone Miner Res 15:1818–1824
  52. Henderson K, Eisman J, Keogh A, Macdonald P, Glanville A, Spratt P, Sambrook P (2001) Protective effect of short-term calcitriol or cyclical etidronate on bone loss after cardiac or lung transplantation. J Bone Miner Res 16:565–571
  53. Braun JJ, Birkenhäger-Frenkel DH, Rietveld AH, Juttmann JR, Visser TJ, Birkenhäger JC (1983) Influence of 1α-(OH)D3 administration on bone and bone mineral metabolism in patients on chronic glucocorticoid treatment: A double blind controlled study. Clin Endocrinol 19:265–273
  54. Reginster JY, Kuntz D, Verdickt W, Wouters M, Guillevin L, Menkes C-J, Nielsen K (1999) Prophylactic use of alfacalcidol in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int 9:75–81
  55. Ringe JD, Cöster A, Meng T, Schacht E, Umbach R (1999) Treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with alfacalcidol/calcium versus vitamin D/calcium. Calcif Tissue Int 65:337–340
  56. Lukert BP, Johnson BE, Robinson RG (1992) Estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy reduces glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 7:1063–1069
  57. Hall GM, Daniels M, Doyle DV, Spector TD (1994) Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mass in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with and without steroids. Arthritis Rheum 37:1499–1505
  58. Crawford BAL, Liu PY, Kean MT, Bleasel JF, Handelsman DJ (2003) Randomized placebo-controlled trial of androgen effects on muscle and bone in men requiring long-term systemic glucocorticoid treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3167–3176
  59. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (2002) Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized, controlled trial. JAMA 288:321–333
  60. Ringe J-D, Welzel D (1987) Salmon calcitonin in the therapy of corticoid-induced osteoporosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 33:35–39
  61. Rizzato G, Tosi G, Schiraldi G, Montemurro L, Zanni D, Sisti S (1988) Bone protection with salmon calcitonin (sCT) in the long-term steroid therapy of chronic sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis 5:99–103
  62. Luengo M., Picado C., del Rio L., Guañabens N., Montserrat J. M., Setoain J., Treatment of Steroid-induced Osteopenia with Calcitonin in Corticosteroid-dependent Asthma: A One-Year Follow-up Study, 10.1164/ajrccm/142.1.104
  63. Di Munno O, Pontrandolfo A, Occhipinti G, Pardini N (1990) Prevention of corticosteroid induced bone loss with salmon calcitonin nasal spray. In: Christiansen C, Overgaard K (eds) Osteoporosis 1990, Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg ApS, Aalborg, Denmark, pp 1611–1613
  64. Montemurro L, Schiraldi G, Fraioli P, Tosi G, Riboldi A, Rizzato G (1991) Prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with salmon calcitonin in sarcoid patients. Calcif Tissue Int 49:71–76
  65. Healey JH, Paget SA, Williams-Russo P, Szatrowski TP, Schneider R, Spiera H, Mitnick H, Ales K, Schwartzberg P (1996) A randomized controlled trial of salmon calcitonin to prevent bone loss in corticosteroid-treated temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Calcif Tissue Int 58:73–80
  66. Luengo M, Pons F, Martinez de Osaba MJ, Picado C (1994) Prevention of further bone mass loss by nasal calcitonin in patients on long term glucocorticoid therapy for asthma: a 2-year follow-up study. Thorax 49:1099–1102
  67. Valero MA, Loinaz C, Larrodera L, Leon M, Moreno E, Hawkins F (1995) Calcitonin and bisphosphonates treatment in bone loss after liver transplantation. Calcif Tissue Int 57:15–19
  68. Kotaniemi A, Piirainen H, Paimela L, Leirisalo-Repo M, Uoti-Reilama K, Lahdentausta P, Ruotsalainen P, Kataja M, Väisänen E, Kurki P (1996) Is continuous intranasal salmon calcitonin effective in treating axial bone loss in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis receiving low dose glucocorticoid therapy? J Rheumatol 23:1875–1879
  69. Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bell MJ, Bianchi FA, Cividino AA, Craig GL, Sturtridge WC, Sebaldt RJ, Steele M, Gordon M, Themeles E, Tugwell P, Roberts R, Gent M (1997) Salmon calcitonin nasal spray in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Br J Rheumatol 36:255–259
  70. Grotz WH, Rump LC, Niessen A, Schmidt-Gayk H, Reichelt A, Kirste G, Olschewski M, Schollmeyer PJ (1998) Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 66:1004–1008
  71. Cranney A, Welch V, Adachi JD, Homik J, Shea B, Suarez-Almazor ME, Tugwell P, Wells G (2005) Calcitonin for preventing and treating corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library I:1–31
  72. Mulder H, Struys A (1994) Intermittent cyclical etidronate in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss. Br J Rheumatol 33:348–350
  73. Adachi JD, Cranney A, Goldsmith CH, Bensen WG, Bianchi F, Cividino A, Craig GL, Kaminska E, Sebaldt RJ, Papaioannou A, Boratto M, Gordon M, Steele M (1994) Intermittent cyclic therapy with etidronate in the prevention of corticosteroid induced bone loss. J Rheumatol 21:1922–1926
  74. Diamond T, McGuigan L, Barbagallo S, Bryant C (1995) Cyclical etidronate plus ergocalciferol prevents glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in postmenopausal women. Am J Med 98:459–463
  75. Struys A, Snelder AA, Mulder H (1995) Cyclical etidronate reverses bone loss of the spine and proximal femur in patients with established corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Am J Med 99:235–242
  76. Sebaldt RJ, Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bianchi F, Cividano A, Craig GL, Cranney A, Kaminska E, Gordon M, Steele M, Goldsmith C (1996) Intermittent cyclic therapy with etidronate prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: 2 years of follow-up. Scand J Rheumatol [Suppl] 103:91–93
  77. Van Cleemput J, Daenen W, Geusens P, Dequeker J, Van de Werf F, Vanhaecke J (1996) Prevention of bone loss in cardiac transplant recipients. A comparison of biphosphonates and vitamin D. Transplantation 61:1495–1499
  78. Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Brown J, Hanley D, Hodsman A, Josse R, Kendler DL, Lentle B, Olszynski W, Ste-Marie L-G, Tenenhouse A, Chines AA (1997) Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 337:382–387
  79. Skingle SJ, Moore DJ, Crisp AJ (1997) Cyclical etidronate increases lumbar spine bone density in patients on long-term glucocorticosteroid therapy. Int J Clin Pract 51:364–367
  80. Wolfhagen FHJ, Van Buuren HR, den Ouden JW, Hop WCJ, van Leeuwen JPTM, Schalm SW, Pols HAP (1997) Cyclical etidronate in the prevention of bone loss in corticosteroid-treated primary biliary cirrhosis. A prospective, controlled pilot study. J Hepatol 26:325–330
  81. Pitt P, Li F, Todd P, Webber D, Pack S, Moniz C (1998) A double blind placebo controlled study to determine the effects of intermittent cyclical etidronate on bone mineral density in patients on long term oral corticosteroid treatment. Thorax 53:351–356
  82. Roux C, Oriente P, Laan R, Hughes RA, Ittner J, Goemaere S, Di Munno O, Pouillès JM, Horlait S, Cortet B for the Ciblos Study Group (1998) Randomized trial of effect of cyclical etidronate in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:1128–1133
  83. Geusens P, Dequeker J, Vanhoof J, Stalmans R, Boonen S, Joly J, Nijs J, Raus J (1998) Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 57:724–727
  84. Jenkins EA, Walker-Bone KE, Wood A, McCrae FC, Cooper C, Cawley MID (1999) The prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss with intermittent cyclical etidronate. Scand J Rheumatol 28:152–156
  85. Saag KG, Emkey R, Schnitzer TJ, Brown JP, Hawkins F, Goemaere S, Thamsborg G, Liberman UA, Delmas PD, Malice M-P, Czachur M, Daifotis AG (1998) Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 339:292–299
  86. Adachi JD, Saag KG, Delmas PD, Liberman UA, Emkey RD, Seeman E, Lane NE, Kaufman J-M, Poubelle PEE, Hawkins F, Correa-Rotter R, Menkes C-J, Rodriguez-Portales JA, Schnitzer TJ, Block JA, Wing J, McIlwain HH, Westhovens R, Brown J, Melo-Gomes JA, Gruber BL, Yanover MJ, Leite MOR, Siminoski KG, Nevitt MC, Sharp JT, Malice M-P, Dumortier T, Czachur M, Carofano W, Daifotis A (2001) Two-year effects of alendronate on bone mineral density and vertebral fracture in patients receiving glucocorticoids. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension trial. Arthritis Rheum 44:202–211
  87. Shane E, Addesso V, Namerow PB, McMahon DJ, Lo S-H, Staron RB, Zucker M, Pardi S, Maybaum S, Mancini D (2004) Alendronate versus calcitriol for the prevention of bone loss after cardiac transplantation. N Engl J Med 350:767–776
  88. Eastell R, Devogelaer JP, Peel NFA, Chines AA, Bax DE, Sacco-Gibson N, Nagant de Deuxchaisnes C, Russell RGG (2000) Prevention of bone loss with risedronate in glucocorticoid-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients. Osteoporosis Int 11:331–337
  89. Cohen S, Levy RM, Keller M, Boling E, Emkey RD, Greenwald M, Zizic TM, Wallach S, Sewell KL, Lukert BP, Axelrod DW, Chines AA (1999) Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss. A 12-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Arthritis Rheum 42:2309–2318
  90. Reid DM, Hughes RA, Laan RFJM, Sacco-Gibson NA, Wenderoth DH, Adami S, Eusebio RA, Devogelaer J-P (2000) Efficacy and safety of daily risedronate in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women: a randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res 15:1006–1013
  91. Wallach S, Cohen S, Reid DM, Hughes RA, Hosking DJ, Laan RF, Doherty SM, Maricic M, Rosen C, Brown J, Barton I, Chines AA (2000) Effects of risedronate treatment on bone density and vertebral fracture in patients on corticosteroid therapy. Calcif Tissue Int 67:277–285
  92. Reid DM, Adami S, Devogelaer J-P, Chines AA (2001) Risedronate increases bone density and reduces vertebral fracture risk within 1 year in men on corticosteroid therapy. Calcif Tissue Int 69:242–247
  93. Homik JJEH, Adachi JD, Cranney A, Shea BJ, Suarez-Almazor ME, Tugwell P, Wells G (2005) Bisphosphonates for steroid induced osteoporosis (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library 2:1–28
  94. Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, et al (1998) Parathyroid hormone treatment can reverse corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Invest 102:1627–1633
  95. Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, et al (2000) Bone mass continues to increase at the hip after parathyroid hormone treatment is discontinued in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 15:944–951
  96. Sambrook PN (2000) Corticosteroid osteoporosis: Practical implications of recent trials. J Bone Miner Res 15:1645–1649
  97. Fentiman IS, Saad Z, Caleffi M, Chaudary MA, Fogelman I (1992) Tamoxifen protects against steroid-induced bone loss. Eur J Cancer 28:684–685
  98. Emkey R, Delmas PD, Goemaere S, Liberman UA, Poubelle PE, Daifotis AG, Verbruggen N, Lombardi A, Czahur M (2003) Changes in bone mineral density following discontinuation or continuation of alendronate therapy in glucocorticoid-treated patients. Arthritis Rheum 48:1102–1108