User menu

Antarctic climate variability on regional and continental scales over the last 2000 years

Bibliographic reference Stenni, Barbara ; Curran, Mark A. J. ; Abram, Nerilie J. ; Orsi, Anais ; Goursaud, Sentia ; et. al. Antarctic climate variability on regional and continental scales over the last 2000 years. In: Climate of the Past, Vol. 13, p. 1609-1634 (2017)
Permanent URL
  1. Abram, N. J., Mulvaney, R., and Arrowsmith, C.: Environmental signals in a highly resolved ice core from James Ross Island, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D20116,, 2011.
  2. Abram, N. J., Mulvaney, R., Wolff, E. W., Triest, J., Kipfstuhl, S., Trusel, L. D., Vimeux, F., Fleet, L., and Arrowsmith, C.: Acceleration of snow melt in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core during the twentieth century, Nat. Geosci., 6, 404–411,, 2013.
  3. Abram, N. J., Mulvaney, R., Vimeux, F., Phipps, S. J., Turner, J., and England, M. H.: Evolution of the Southern Annular Mode during the past millennium, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 564–569,, 2014.
  4. Abram, N. J., McGregor, H. V., Tierney, J. E., Evans, M. N., McKay, N. P., Kaufman, D. S., and the PAGES 2k Consortium: Early onset of industrial-era warming across the oceans and continents, Nature, 536, 411–418,, 2016.
  5. Armour, K. C., Marshall, J., Scott, J. R., Donohoe, A., and Newsom, E. R.: Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport, Nat. Geosci., 9, 549–554,, 2016.
  6. Bertler, N. A. N., Conway, H., Dahl-Jensen, D., Emanuelsson, D. B., Winstrup, M., Vallelonga, P. T., Lee, J. E., Brook, E. J., Severinghaus, J. P., Fudge, T. J., Keller, E. D., Baisden, W. T., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Neff, P. D., Blunier, T., Edwards, R., Mayewski, P. A., Kipfstuhl, S., Buizert, C., Canessa, S., Dadic, R., Kjær, H. A., Kurbatov, A., Zhang, D., Waddington, E. D., Baccolo, G., Beers, T., Brightley, H. J., Carter, L., Clemens-Sewall, D., Ciobanu, V. G., Delmonte, B., Eling, L., Ellis, A. A., Ganesh, S., Golledge, N. R., Haines, S. A., Handley, M., Hawley, R. L., Hogan, C. M., Johnson, K. M., Korotkikh, E., Lowry, D. P., Mandeno, D., McKay, R. M., Menking, J. A., Naish, T. R., Noerling, C., Ollive, A., Orsi, A., Proemse, B. C., Pyne, A. R., Pyne, R. L., Renwick, J., Scherer, R. P., Semper, S., Simonsen, M., Sneed, S. B., Steig, E. J., Tuohy, A., Ulayottil Venugopal, A., Valero-Delgado, F., Venkatesh, J., Wang, F., Wang, S., Winski, D. A., Winton, V. H. L., Whiteford, A., Xiao, C., Yang, J., and Zhang, X.: The Ross Sea Dipole – Temperature, Snow Accumulation and Sea Ice Variability in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica, over the Past 2700 Years, Clim. Past Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
  7. Bonne, J.-L., Masson-Delmotte, V., Cattani, O., Delmotte, M., Risi, C., Sodemann, H., and Steen-Larsen, H. C.: The isotopic composition of water vapour and precipitation in Ivittuut, southern Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4419–4439,, 2014.
  8. Bromwich, D. H., Nicolas, J. P., Monaghan, A. J., Lazzara, M. A., Keller, L. M., Weidner, G. A., and Wilson, A. B.: Central West Antarctica among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, Nat. Geosci., 6, 139–145,, 2013.
  9. Casado, M., Landais, A., Masson-Delmotte, V., Genthon, C., Kerstel, E., Kassi, S., Arnaud, L., Picard, G., Prie, F., Cattani, O., Steen-Larsen, H.-C., Vignon, E., and Cermak, P.: Continuous measurements of isotopic composition of water vapour on the East Antarctic Plateau, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8521–8538,, 2016.
  10. Dee, D., Uppala, S., Simmons, A., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M., Balsamo, G., and Bauer, P.: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597, 2011.
  11. Ding, Q., Steig, E. J., Battisti, D. S., and Küttel, M.: Winter warming in West Antarctica caused by central tropical Pacific warming, Nat. Geosci., 4, 398–403,, 2011.
  12. Dittmann, A., Schlosser, E., Masson-Delmotte, V., Powers, J. G., Manning, K. W., Werner, M., and Fujita, K.: Precipitation regime and stable isotopes at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6883–6900,, 2016.
  13. Ekaykin, A. A., Lipenkov, V. Y., Kuzmina, I. N., Petit, J. R., Masson-Delmotte, V., and Johnsen, S. J.: The changes in isotope composition and accumulation of snow at Vostok Station, East Antarctica, over the past 200 years, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 569–575, 2004.
  14. Ekaykin, A. A., Kozachek, A. V., Lipenkov, V. Y., and Shibaev, Y. A.: Multiple climate shifts in the Southern Hemisphere over the past three centuries based on central Antarctic snow pits and core studies, Ann. Glaciol., 55, 259–266,, 2014.
  15. Emanuelsson, D. B., Bertler, N. A. N., Neff, P., Renwick, J., Markle, B., Baisden, W. T., Keller, E.: The role of Amundsen-Bellingshausen Sea anticyclonic circulation in forcing marine air intrusions into West Antarctica, Clim. Dynam., CLDY-D-16-00858, submitted, 2017.
  16. Fegyveresi, J. M., Alley, R. B., Spencer, M. K., Fitzpatrick, J. J., Steig, E. J., White, J. W. C., McConnell, J. R., and Taylor, K. C.: Late-Holocene climate evolution at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica: bubble number-density estimates, J. Glaciol., 57, 629–638, 2011.
  17. Fernandoy, F., Meyer, H., Oerter, H., Wilhelms, F., Graf, W., and Schwander, J.: Temporal and spatial variation of stable-isotope ratios and accumulation rates in the hinterland of Neumayer Station, East Antarctica, J. Glaciol., 56, 673–687, 2010.
  18. Fernandoy, F., Meyer, H., and Tonelli, M.: Stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstruction, The Cryosphere, 6, 313–330,, 2012.
  19. Fischer, E. M., Luterbacher, J., Zorita, E., Tett, S. F. B., Casty, C., and Wanner, H.: European climate response to tropical volcanic eruptions over the last half millennium, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05707,, 2007.
  20. Flato, G., Marotzke, J., Abiodun, B., Braconnot, P., Chou, S. C., Collins, W., Cox, P., Driouech, F., Emori, S., Eyring, V., Forest, C., Gleckler, P., Guilyardi, E., Jakob, C., Kattsov, V., Reason, C., and Rummukainen, M.: Evaluation of climate models, in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., Midgley, P. M., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2013.
  21. Frezzotti, M., Urbini, S., Proposito, M., Scarchilli, C., and Gandolfi, S.: Spatial and temporal variability of surface mass balance near Talos Dome, East Antartica, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 112, F02032,, 2007.
  22. Goosse, H., Braida, M., Crosta, X., Mairesse, A., Masson-Delmotte, V., Mathiot, P., Neukom, R., Oerter, H., Philippon, G., Renssen, H., Stenni, B., van Ommen, T., and Verleyen, E.: Antarctic temperature changes during the last millennium: evaluation of simulations and reconstructions, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 55, 75–90,, 2012.
  23. Goosse, H.: Reconstructed and simulated temperature asymmetry between continents in both hemispheres over the last centuries. Clim. Dynam., 48, 1483–1501,, 2017.
  24. Goursaud, S., Masson-Delmotte, V., Favier, V., Preunkert, S., Fily, M., Gallée, H., Jourdain, B., Legrand, M., Magand, O., Minster, B., and Werner, M.: A 60-year ice-core record of regional climate from Adélie Land, coastal Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 11, 343–362,, 2017.
  25. Guillet, S., Corona, C., Stoffel, M., Khodri, M., Lavigne, F., Ortega, P., Eckert, N., Sielenou, P. D., Daux, V., Churakova (Sidorova), O. V., Davi, N., Edouard, J. L., Zhang, Y., Luckman, B. H., Myglan, V. S., Guiot, J., Beniston, M., Masson-Delmotte, V., and Oppenheimer, C.: Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records, Nat. Geosci., 10, 123–128,, 2017.
  26. Hakim, G. J., Emile-Geay, J., Steig, E. J., Noone, D., Anderson, D. M., Tardif, R., Steiger, N., and Perkins, W. A.: The last millennium climate reanalysis project: framework and first results, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 6745–6764,, 2016.
  27. Hoffmann, G., Werner, M., and Heimann, M.: Water isotope module of the ECHAM atmospheric general circulation model: a study on timescales from days to several years, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 103, 16871–16896, 1998.
  28. Hoshina, Y., Fujita, K., Nakazawa, F., Iizuka, Y., Miyake, T., Hirabayashi, M., Kuramoto, T., Fujita, S., and Motoyama, H.: Effect of accumulation rate on water stable isotopes of near-surface snow in inland Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 274–283,, 2014.
  29. Jones, P. D., Briffa, K. R., Osborn, T. J., Lough, J. M., van Ommen, T. D., Vinther, B. M., Luterbacher, J., Wahl, E. R., Zwiers, F. W., Mann, M. E., Schmidt, G. A., Ammann, C. M., Buckley, B. M., Cobb, K. M., Esper, J., Goosse, H., Graham, N., Jansen, E., Kiefer, T., Kull, C., Küttel, M., Mosley-Thompson, E., Overpeck, J. T., Riedwyl, N., Schulz, M., Tudhope, A. W., Villalba, R., Wanner, H., Wolff, E., and Xoplaki, E.: High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects, The Holocene, 19, 3–49,, 2009.
  30. Jones, J. M., Gille, S. T., Goosse, H., Abram, N. J., Canziani, P. O., Charman, D. J., Clem, K. R., Crosta, X., de Lavergne, C., Eisenman, I., England, M. H., Fogt, R. L., Frankcombe, L. M., Marshall, G. J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Morrison, A. K., Orsi, A. J., Raphael, M. N., Renwick, J. A., Schneider, D. P., Simpkins, G. R., Steig, E. J., Stenni, B., Swingedouw, D., and Vance, T. R.: Assessing recent trends in high-latitude Southern Hemisphere surface climate, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 917–926,, 2016.
  31. Jouzel, J.: Water stable isotopes: atmospheric composition and applications in polar ice core studies, in: Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Ed., Vol. 5, The Atmosphere, edited by: Keeling, R. and Russel, L., Elsevier, 213–256,, 2014.
  32. Jouzel, J. and Merlivat, L.: Deuterium and oxygen 18 in precipitation: modeling of the isotopic effects during snow formation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 89, 11749–11757, 1984.
  33. Kaufman, D. S., Schneider, D. P., McKay, N. P., Ammann, C. M., Bradley, R. S., Briffa, K. R., Miller, G. H., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Overpeck, J. T., Vinther, B. M., and Lakes, A.: Recent warming reverses long-term Arctic cooling, Science, 325, 1236–1239, 2009.
  34. Küttel, M., Steig, E. J., Ding, Q., Monaghan, A. J., and Battisti, D. S.: Seasonal climate information preserved in West Antarctic ice core water isotopes: relationships to temperature, large-scale circulation, and sea ice, Clim. Dynam., 39, 1841–1857,, 2012.
  35. Masson-Delmotte, V., Hou, S., Ekaykin, A., Jouzel, J., Aristarain, A., Bernardo, R., Bromwich, D., Cattani, O., Delmotte, M., Falourd, S., Frezzotti, M., Gallée, H., Genoni, L., Isaksson, E., Landais, A., Helsen, M., Hoffman, G., Lopez, J., Morgan, V., Motoyama, H., Noone, D., Oerter, H., Petit, J., Royer, A., Uemura, R., Schmidt, G., Schlosser, E., Simões, J., Steig, E., Stenni, B., Stievenard, M., Van den Breoke, M., Van de Wak, R., Van de Berg, W., Vimeux, F., and White, J.: A review of Antarctic surface snow isotopic composition: observations, atmospheric circulation, and isotopic modeling, J. Climate, 21, 3359–3387,, 2008.
  36. Masson-Delmotte, V., Buiron, D., Ekaykin, A., Frezzotti, M., Gallée, H., Jouzel, J., Krinner, G., Landais, A., Motoyama, H., Oerter, H., Pol, K., Pollard, D., Ritz, C., Schlosser, E., Sime, L. C., Sodemann, H., Stenni, B., Uemura, R., and Vimeux, F.: A comparison of the present and last interglacial periods in six Antarctic ice cores, Clim. Past, 7, 397–423,, 2011.
  37. McGregor, H. V., Evans, M. N., Goosse, H., Leduc, G., Martrat, B., Addison, J. A., Mortyn, P. G., Oppo, D. W., Seidenkrantz, M.-S., Sicre, M.-A., Phipps, S. J., Selvaraj, K., Thirumalai, K., Filipsson, H. L., and Ersek, V.: Robust global ocean cooling trend for the pre-industrial Common Era, Nat. Geosci., 8, 671–677,, 2015.
  38. Mulvaney, R., Abram, N. J., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Arrowsmith, C., Fleet, L., Triest, J., Sime, L. C., Alemany, O., and Foord, S.: Recent Antarctic Peninsula warming relative to Holocene climate and ice-shelf history, Nature, 489, 141–144,, 2012.
  39. Neff, P. D. and Bertler, N. A. N.: Trajectory modeling of modern dust transport to the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 9303–9322,, 2015.
  40. Neukom, R., Gergis, J., Karoly, D. J., Wanner, H., Curran, M., Elbert, J., González-Rouco, F., Linsley, B. K., Moy, A. D., Mundo, I., Raible, C. C., Steig, E. J., van Ommen, T., Vance, T., Villalba, R., Zinke, J., and Frank, D.: Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 362–367,, 2014.
  41. Nicolas, J. P. and Bromwich, D. H.: New reconstruction of antarctic near-surface temperatures: multidecadal trends and reliability of global reanalyses, J. Climate, 27, 8070–8093,, 2014.
  42. Orsi, A. J., Cornuelle, B. D., and Severinghaus, J. P.: Little Ice Age cold interval in West Antarctica: evidence from borehole temperature at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L09710,, 2012.
  43. Ortega, P., Lehner, F., Swingedouw, D., Masson-Delmotte, V., Raible, C. C., Casado, M., and Yiou, P.: A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium, Nature, 523, 71–74,, 2015.
  44. Otterå, O. H., Bensen, M., Drange, H., and Suo, L.: External forcing as a metronome for Atlantic multidecadal variability, Nat. Geosci., 3, 688–694,, 2010.
  45. PAGES 2k Consortium: Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia, Nat. Geosci., 6, 339–346, Published online 21 April 2013,, 2013.
  46. Emile-Geay Julien, McKay Nicholas P., Kaufman Darrell S., von Gunten Lucien, Wang Jianghao, Anchukaitis Kevin J., Abram Nerilie J., Addison Jason A., Curran Mark A.J., Evans Michael N., Henley Benjamin J., Hao Zhixin, Martrat Belen, McGregor Helen V., Neukom Raphael, Pederson Gregory T., Stenni Barbara, Thirumalai Kaustubh, Werner Johannes P., Xu Chenxi, Divine Dmitry V., Dixon Bronwyn C., Gergis Joelle, Mundo Ignacio A., Nakatsuka Takeshi, Phipps Steven J., Routson Cody C., Steig Eric J., Tierney Jessica E., Tyler Jonathan J., Allen Kathryn J., Bertler Nancy A.N., Björklund Jesper, Chase Brian M., Chen Min-Te, Cook Ed, de Jong Rixt, DeLong Kristine L., Dixon Daniel A., Ekaykin Alexey A., Ersek Vasile, Filipsson Helena L., Francus Pierre, Freund Mandy B., Frezzotti Massimo, Gaire Narayan P., Gajewski Konrad, Ge Quansheng, Goosse Hugues, Gornostaeva Anastasia, Grosjean Martin, Horiuchi Kazuho, Hormes Anne, Husum Katrine, Isaksson Elisabeth, Kandasamy Selvaraj, Kawamura Kenji, Kilbourne K. Halimeda, Koç Nalan, Leduc Guillaume, Linderholm Hans W., Lorrey Andrew M., Mikhalenko Vladimir, Mortyn P. Graham, Motoyama Hideaki, Moy Andrew D., Mulvaney Robert, Munz Philipp M., Nash David J., Oerter Hans, Opel Thomas, Orsi Anais J., Ovchinnikov Dmitriy V., Porter Trevor J., Roop Heidi A., Saenger Casey, Sano Masaki, Sauchyn David, Saunders Krystyna M., Seidenkrantz Marit-Solveig, Severi Mirko, Shao Xuemei, Sicre Marie-Alexandrine, Sigl Michael, Sinclair Kate, St. George Scott, St. Jacques Jeannine-Marie, Thamban Meloth, Kuwar Thapa Udya, Thomas Elizabeth R., Turney Chris, Uemura Ryu, Viau Andre E., Vladimirova Diana O., Wahl Eugene R., White James W.C., Yu Zicheng, Zinke Jens, A global multiproxy database for temperature reconstructions of the Common Era, 10.1038/sdata.2017.88
  47. PAGES 2k-PMIP3 group: Continental-scale temperature variability in PMIP3 simulations and PAGES 2k regional temperature reconstructions over the past millennium, Clim. Past, 11, 1673–1699,, 2015.
  48. Plummer, C. T., Curran, M. A. J., van Ommen, T. D., Rasmussen, S. O., Moy, A. D., Vance, T. R., Clausen, H. B., Vinther, B. M., and Mayewski, P. A.: An independently dated 2000-yr volcanic record from Law Dome, East Antarctica, including a new perspective on the dating of the 1450s CE eruption of Kuwae, Vanuatu, Clim. Past, 8, 1929–1940,, 2012.
  49. Ritter, F., Steen-Larsen, H. C., Werner, M., Masson-Delmotte, V., Orsi, A., Behrens, M., Birnbaum, G., Freitag, J., Risi, C., and Kipfstuhl, S.: Isotopic exchange on the diurnal scale between near-surface snow and lower atmospheric water vapor at Kohnen station, East Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 10, 1647–1663,, 2016.
  50. Roeckner, E., Bäuml, G., Bonaventura, L., Brokopf, R., Esch, M., Giorgetta, M., Hagemann, S., Kirchner, I., Kornblueh, L., and Manzini, E.: The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model description, Report 349, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, 2003.
  51. Schleussner, C. F., Divine, D. V., Donges, J. F., Miettinen, A., and Donner, R. V.: Indications for a North Atlantic ocean circulation regime shift at the onset of the Little Ice Age, Clim. Dynam., 45, 3623–3633,, 2015.
  52. Schlosser, E., Reijmer, C., Oerter, H., and Graf, W.: The influence of origin of precipitation on the δ18O-T relationship at Neumayer Station, Ekströmisen, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 41–48, 2004.
  53. Schlosser, E., Reijmer, C., Oerter, H., and Graf, W.: The influence of origin of precipitation on the δ18O-T relationship at Neumayer Station, Ekströmisen, Antarctica, Ann. Glaciol., 39, 41–48, 2004.
  54. Schmidt, G. A., LeGrande, A. N., and Hoffmann, G.: Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D10103,, 2007.
  55. Schneider, D. P., Steig, E. J., and van Ommen, T.: Interpretation of high resolution ice core stable isotope records from Antarctica: towards interannual climate reconstruction, Ann. Glaciol., 41, 63–70, 2005.
  56. Schneider, D. P., Steig, E. J., van Ommen, T. D., Dixon, D. A., Mayewski, P. A., Jones, J. M., and Bitz, C. M.: Antarctic temperatures over the past two centuries from ice cores, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16707,, 2006.
  57. Sigl, M., McConnell, J. R., Toohey, M., Curran, M., Das, S. B., Edwards, R., Isaksson, E., Kawamura, K., Kipfstuhl, S., Krüger, K., Layman, L., Maselli, O. J., Motizuki, Y., Motoyama, H., Pasteris, D. R., and Severi, M.: Insights from Antarctica on volcanic forcing during the Common Era, Nat. Clim. Change, 4, 693–697,, 2014.
  58. Sigl, M., Winstrup, M., McConnell, J. R., Welten, K. C., Plunkett, G., Ludlow, F., Büntgen, U., Caffee, M., Chellman, N., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Kipfstuhl, S., Kostick, C., Maselli, O. J., Mekhaldi, F., Mulvaney, R., Muscheler, R., Pasteris, D. R., Pilcher, J. R., Salzer, M., Schüpbach, S., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M., and Woodruff, T. E.: Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2500 years, Nature, 523, 543–549, 2015.
  59. Sigl, M., Fudge, T. J., Winstrup, M., Cole-Dai, J., Ferris, D., McConnell, J. R., Taylor, K. C., Welten, K. C., Woodruff, T. E., Adolphi, F., Bisiaux, M., Brook, E. J., Buizert, C., Caffee, M. W., Dunbar, N. W., Edwards, R., Geng, L., Iverson, N., Koffman, B., Layman, L., Maselli, O. J., McGwire, K., Muscheler, R., Nishiizumi, K., Pasteris, D. R., Rhodes, R. H., and Sowers, T. A.: The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Annual-layer counting (0–31 ka BP), Clim. Past, 12, 769–786,, 2016.
  60. Sime, L. C., Marshall, G. J., Mulvaney, R., and Thomas, E. R.: Interpreting temperature information from ice cores along the Antarctic Peninsula: ERA40 analysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18801,, 2009.
  61. Sodemann, H. and Stohl, A.: Asymmetries in the moisture origin of Antarctic precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L22803,, 2009.
  62. Steen-Larsen, H. C., Masson-Delmotte, V., Hirabayashi, M., Winkler, R., Satow, K., Prié, F., Bayou, N., Brun, E., Cuffey, K. M., Dahl-Jensen, D., Dumont, M., Guillevic, M., Kipfstuhl, S., Landais, A., Popp, T., Risi, C., Steffen, K., Stenni, B., and Sveinbjörnsdottír, A. E.: What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?, Clim. Past, 10, 377–392,, 2014.
  63. Steen-Larsen, H. C., Risi, C., Werner, M., Yoshimura, K., and Masson-Delmotte, V.: Evaluating the skills of isotope-enabled general circulation models against in situ atmospheric water vapor isotope observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 122, 246–263,, 2017.
  64. Steig, E. J., Schneider, D. P., Rutherford, S. D., Mann, M. E., Comiso, J. C., and Shindell, D. T.: Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year, Nature, 457, 459–462,, 2009.
  65. Steig, E. J., Ding, Q., White, J. W. C., Küttel, M., Rupper, S. B., Neumann, T. A., Neff, P. D., Gallant, A. J. E., Mayewski, P. A., Taylor, K. C., Hoffmann, G., Dixon, D. A., Schoenemann, S. W., Markle, B. R., Fudge, T. J., Schneider, D. P., Schauer, A. J., Teel, R. P., Vaughn, B. H., Burgener, L., Williams, J., and Korotkikh, E.: Recent climate and ice-sheet changes in West Antarctica compared with the past 2000 years, Nat. Geosci., 6, 372–375,, 2013.
  66. Stenni, B., Scarchilli, C., Masson-Delmotte, V., Schlosser, E., Ciardini, V., Dreossi, G., Grigioni, P., Bonazza, M., Cagnati, A., Karlicek, D., Risi, C., Udisti, R., and Valt, M.: Three year monitoring of stable isotopes of precipitation at Concordia Station, East Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 10, 2415–2428,, 2016.
  67. Stoffel, M., Khodri, M., Corona, C., Guillet, S., Poulain, V., Bekki, S., Guiot, J., Luckman, B., Oppenheimer, C., Lebas, N., Beniston, M., and Masson-Delmotte, V.: Estimates of volcanic-induced cooling in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1500 years, Nat. Geosci., 8, 784–788,, 2015.
  68. Swingedouw Didier, Ortega Pablo, Mignot Juliette, Guilyardi Eric, Masson-Delmotte Valérie, Butler Paul G., Khodri Myriam, Séférian Roland, Bidecadal North Atlantic ocean circulation variability controlled by timing of volcanic eruptions, 10.1038/ncomms7545
  69. Thomas, E. R. and Abram, N. J.: Ice core reconstruction of sea ice change in the Amundsen-Ross Seas since 1702 A.D., Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 5309–5317,, 2016.
  70. Thomas, E. R. and Bracegirdle, T. J.: Precipitation pathways for five new ice core sites in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica, Clim. Dynam., 44, 2067–2078,, 2015.
  71. Thomas, E. R., Dennis, P. F., Bracegirdle, T. J., and Franzke, C.: Ice core evidence for significant 100 year regional warming on the Antarctic Peninsula, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20704,, 2009.
  72. Thomas, E. R., Bracegirdle, T. J., Turner, J., and Wolff, E. W.: A 308 year record of climate variability in West Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5492–5496,, 2013.
  73. Thomas Elizabeth R., van Wessem J. Melchior, Roberts Jason, Isaksson Elisabeth, Schlosser Elisabeth, Fudge Tyler J., Vallelonga Paul, Medley Brooke, Lenaerts Jan, Bertler Nancy, van den Broeke Michiel R., Dixon Daniel A., Frezzotti Massimo, Stenni Barbara, Curran Mark, Ekaykin Alexey A., Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years, 10.5194/cp-13-1491-2017
  74. Thompson, D. W. J. and Solomon, S.: Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change, Science, 296, 895–899,, 2002.
  75. Thompson, D. W. J., Solomon, S., Kushner, P. J., England, M. H., Grise, K. M., and Karoly, D. J.: Signatures of the Antarctic ozone hole in Southern Hemisphere surface climate change, Nat. Geosci., 4, 741–749,, 2011.
  76. Touzeau, A., Landais, A., Stenni, B., Uemura, R., Fukui, K., Fujita, S., Guilbaud, S., Ekaykin, A., Casado, M., Barkan, E., Luz, B., Magand, O., Teste, G., Le Meur, E., Baroni, M., Savarino, J., Bourgeois, I., and Risi, C.: Acquisition of isotopic composition for surface snow in East Antarctica and the links to climatic parameters, The Cryosphere, 10, 837–852,, 2016.
  77. Uppala, S. M., Kållberg, P., Simmons, A., Andrae, U., Bechtold, V. d., Fiorino, M., Gibson, J., Haseler, J., Hernandez, A., and Kelly, G.: The ERA-40 re-analysis, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961–3012, 2005.
  78. Wang, Y., Ding, M., van Wessem, J. M., Schlosser, E., Altnau, S., van den Broeke, M. R., Lenaerts, J. T. M., Thomas, E. R., Isaksson, E., Wang, J., and Sun, W.: A comparison of Antarctic Ice Sheet surface mass balance from atmospheric climate models and in situ observations, J. Climate, 29, 5317–5337,, 2016.
  79. van Ommen, T. D. and Morgan, V. I.: Calibrating the ice core paleothermometer using seasonality, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 102, 9351–9357, 1997.
  80. Van Wessem, J. M., Reijmer, C. H., Morlighem, M., Mouginot, J., Rignot, E., Medley, B., and Van Meijgaard, E.: Improved representation of East Antarctic surface mass balance in a regional atmospheric climate model, J. Glaciol., 60, 761–770,, 2014.
  81. Werner, M., Heimann, M., and Hoffmann, G.: Isotopic composition and origin of polar precipitation in present and glacial climate simulations, Tellus B, 53, 53–71, 2001.
  82. Werner, M., Langebroek, P. M., Carlsen, T., Herold, M., and Lohmann, G.: Stable water isotopes in the ECHAM5 general circulation model: toward high-resolution isotope modeling on a global scale, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 116, D15109,, 2011.
  83. Winstrup, M., Vallelonga, P., Kjær, H. A., Fudge, T. J., Lee, J. E., Riis, M. H., Edwards, R., Bertler, N. A. N., Blunier, T., Brook, E. J., Buizert, C., Ciobanu, G., Conway, H., Dahl-Jensen, D., Ellis, A., Emanuelsson, B. D., Keller, E. D., Kurbatov, A., Mayewski, P., Neff, P. D., Pyne, R., Simonsen, M. F., Svensson, A., Tuohy, A., Waddington, E., and Wheatley, S.: A 2700-year annual timescale and accumulation history for an ice core from Roosevelt Island, West Antarctica, Clim. Past Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
  84. York, D., Evensen, N. M., Lopez Martinez, M., and De Basabe Delgado, J.: Unified equations for the slope, intercept, and standard errors of the best straight line, Am. J. Phys., 72, 367–375, 2004.