Abstract |
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Under which conditions and with which distortions can we preserve the pairwise-distances of low-complexity vectors, e.g., for structured sets such as the set of sparse vectors or the one of low-rank matrices, when these are mapped in a finite set of vectors? This work addresses this general question through the specific use of a quantized and dithered random linear mapping which combines, in the following order, a sub-Gaussian random projection in $\mathbb R^M$ of vectors in $\mathbb R^N$, a random translation, or "dither", of the projected vectors and a uniform scalar quantizer of resolution $\delta>0$ applied componentwise. Thanks to this quantized mapping we are first able to show that, with high probability, an embedding of a bounded set $\mathcal K \subset \mathbb R^N$ in $\delta \mathbb Z^M$ can be achieved when distances in the quantized and in the original domains are measured with the $\ell_1$- and $\ell_2$-norm, respectively, and provided the number of quantized observations $M$ is large before the square of the "Gaussian mean width" of $\mathcal K$. In this case, we show that the embedding is actually "quasi-isometric" and only suffers of both multiplicative and additive distortions whose magnitudes decrease as $M^{-1/5}$ for general sets, and as $M^{-1/2}$ for structured set, when $M$ increases. Second, when one is only interested in characterizing the maximal distance separating two elements of $\mathcal K$ mapped to the same quantized vector, i.e., the "consistency width" of the mapping, we show that for a similar number of measurements and with high probability this width decays as $M^{-1/4}$ for general sets and as $1/M$ for structured ones when $M$ increases. Finally, as an important aspect of our work, we also establish how the non-Gaussianity of the mapping impacts the class of vectors that can be embedded or whose consistency width provably decays when $M$ increases. |