User menu

Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows

Bibliographic reference Hicks, Damien ; Ouvrard, Pierre ; Baldock, Katherine ; Baude, Mathilde ; et. al. Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows. In: PLoS One, Vol. juin, no.n/A, p. 37 p. (2016)
Permanent URL
  1. JONES Elizabeth L., LEATHER Simon R., Invertebrates in urban areas: A review, 10.14411/eje.2012.060
  2. Olive Andrea, Minichiello Alexa, Wild things in urban places: America's largest cities and multi-scales of governance for endangered species conservation, 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.06.004
  3. (2011)
  4. Gerard F., Petit S., Smith G., Thomson A., Brown N., Manchester S., Wadsworth R., Bugar G., Halada L., Bezák P., Boltiziar M., De badts E., Halabuk A., Mojses M., Petrovic F., Gregor M., Hazeu G., Mücher C.A., Wachowicz M., Huitu H., Tuominen S., Köhler R., Olschofsky K., Ziese H., Kolar J., Sustera J., Luque S., Pino J., Pons X., Roda F., Roscher M., Feranec J., Land cover change in Europe between 1950 and 2000 determined employing aerial photography, 10.1177/0309133309360141
  5. Turrini Tabea, Knop Eva, A landscape ecology approach identifies important drivers of urban biodiversity, 10.1111/gcb.12825
  6. Seto K. C., Guneralp B., Hutyra L. R., Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools, 10.1073/pnas.1211658109
  7. Gallai N. Array for the economic valuation of the contribution of insect pollination to agriculture and impact on the welfare. In: FAOSTAT [Internet]. 2008. Available:
  8. Biesmeijer J. C., Parallel Declines in Pollinators and Insect-Pollinated Plants in Britain and the Netherlands, 10.1126/science.1127863
  9. Cameron S. A., Lozier J. D., Strange J. P., Koch J. B., Cordes N., Solter L. F., Griswold T. L., Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees, 10.1073/pnas.1014743108
  10. Potts Simon G., Biesmeijer Jacobus C., Kremen Claire, Neumann Peter, Schweiger Oliver, Kunin William E., Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers, 10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007
  11. Bates Adam J., Sadler Jon P., Fairbrass Alison J., Falk Steven J., Hale James D., Matthews Tom J., Changing Bee and Hoverfly Pollinator Assemblages along an Urban-Rural Gradient, 10.1371/journal.pone.0023459
  12. Banaszak-Cibicka Weronika, Żmihorski Michał, Wild bees along an urban gradient: winners and losers, 10.1007/s10841-011-9419-2
  13. Deguines Nicolas, Julliard Romain, de Flores Mathieu, Fontaine Colin, The Whereabouts of Flower Visitors: Contrasting Land-Use Preferences Revealed by a Country-Wide Survey Based on Citizen Science, 10.1371/journal.pone.0045822
  14. Hennig Ernest Ireneusz, Ghazoul Jaboury, Plant–pollinator interactions within the urban environment, 10.1016/j.ppees.2011.03.003
  15. Verboven Hans A.F., Uyttenbroeck Roel, Brys Rein, Hermy Martin, Different responses of bees and hoverflies to land use in an urban–rural gradient show the importance of the nature of the rural land use, 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.02.017
  16. Fortel Laura, Henry Mickaël, Guilbaud Laurent, Guirao Anne Laure, Kuhlmann Michael, Mouret Hugues, Rollin Orianne, Vaissière Bernard E., Decreasing Abundance, Increasing Diversity and Changing Structure of the Wild Bee Community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an Urbanization Gradient, 10.1371/journal.pone.0104679
  17. Carvalheiro Luísa Gigante, Biesmeijer Jacobus Christiaan, Benadi Gita, Fründ Jochen, Stang Martina, Bartomeus Ignasi, Kaiser-Bunbury Christopher N., Baude Mathilde, Gomes Sofia I. F., Merckx Vincent, Baldock Katherine C. R., Bennett Andrew T. D., Boada Ruth, Bommarco Riccardo, Cartar Ralph, Chacoff Natacha, Dänhardt Juliana, Dicks Lynn V., Dormann Carsten F., Ekroos Johan, Henson Kate S.E., Holzschuh Andrea, Junker Robert R., Lopezaraiza-Mikel Martha, Memmott Jane, Montero-Castaño Ana, Nelson Isabel L., Petanidou Theodora, Power Eileen F., Rundlöf Maj, Smith Henrik G., Stout Jane C., Temitope Kehinde, Tscharntke Teja, Tscheulin Thomas, Vilà Montserrat, Kunin William E., The potential for indirect effects between co-flowering plants via shared pollinators depends on resource abundance, accessibility and relatedness, 10.1111/ele.12342
  18. Sirohi Muzafar Hussain, Jackson Janet, Edwards Mike, Ollerton Jeff, Diversity and abundance of solitary and primitively eusocial bees in an urban centre: a case study from Northampton (England), 10.1007/s10841-015-9769-2
  19. Hülsmann Marietta, von Wehrden Henrik, Klein Alexandra-Maria, Leonhardt Sara Diana, Plant diversity and composition compensate for negative effects of urbanization on foraging bumble bees, 10.1007/s13592-015-0366-x
  20. KCR Baldock, Proc R Soc, 282, 10 (2015)
  21. Carvell Claire, Roy David B., Smart Simon M., Pywell Richard F., Preston Chris D., Goulson Dave, Declines in forage availability for bumblebees at a national scale, 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.05.008
  22. Müller Andreas, Diener Stefan, Schnyder Simone, Stutz Katharina, Sedivy Claudio, Dorn Silvia, Quantitative pollen requirements of solitary bees: Implications for bee conservation and the evolution of bee–flower relationships, 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.01.023
  23. Vanbergen A, Heard M, Breeze T, Potts S, Hanley N. Status and value of pollinators and pollination services [online]. A report of the department for environment, food and rural affairs. [Internet]. 2014. Available: Accessed 7 June 2016.
  24. Harrison Tina, Winfree Rachael, Urban drivers of plant-pollinator interactions, 10.1111/1365-2435.12486
  25. Bowers Michael A., Resource Availability and Timing of Reproduction in Bumble Bee Colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae), 10.1093/ee/15.3.750
  27. ALBRECHT MATTHIAS, DUELLI PETER, SCHMID BERNHARD, MÜLLER CHRISTINE B., Interaction diversity within quantified insect food webs in restored and adjacent intensively managed meadows, 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2007.01264.x
  28. TD Seeley (1995)
  29. J Bengtsson, PLoS One, 4 (2009)
  30. Lowenstein David M., Matteson Kevin C., Minor Emily S., Diversity of wild bees supports pollination services in an urbanized landscape, 10.1007/s00442-015-3389-0
  31. P Ferrazzi, Insect Soc Life, 3, 107 (2000)
  32. B Denisow, J Apic Sci, 58, 93 (2014)
  33. Lowenstein David M., Matteson Kevin C., Xiao Iyan, Silva Alexandra M., Minor Emily S., Humans, bees, and pollination services in the city: the case of Chicago, IL (USA), 10.1007/s10531-014-0752-0
  34. Gunnarsson Bengt, Federsel Lisa Marie, Bumblebees in the city: abundance, species richness and diversity in two urban habitats, 10.1007/s10841-014-9729-2
  35. Pardee Gabriella L., Philpott Stacy M., Native plants are the bee’s knees: local and landscape predictors of bee richness and abundance in backyard gardens, 10.1007/s11252-014-0349-0
  36. J Niemelä (2011)
  37. Hitchmough J.D, Establishment of cultivated herbaceous perennials in purpose-sown native wildflower meadows in south-west Scotland, 10.1016/s0169-2046(00)00092-x
  38. J Hitchmough (2004)
  39. Hitchmough James, Woudstra Jan, The ecology of exotic herbaceous perennials grown in managed, native grassy vegetation in urban landscapes, 10.1016/s0169-2046(99)00031-6
  40. Kendle A.D., Rose J.E., The aliens have landed! What are the justifications for ‘native only’ policies in landscape plantings?, 10.1016/s0169-2046(99)00070-5
  41. Lindemann-Matthies Petra, Junge Xenia, Matthies Diethart, The influence of plant diversity on people’s perception and aesthetic appreciation of grassland vegetation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.003
  42. Chiesura Anna, The role of urban parks for the sustainable city, 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003
  43. Junge Xenia, Schüpbach Beatrice, Walter Thomas, Schmid Bernhard, Lindemann-Matthies Petra, Aesthetic quality of agricultural landscape elements in different seasonal stages in Switzerland, 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.09.010
  44. LM Blackmore, Insect Conserv Divers (2014)
  45. Kells Andrea R., Holland John M., Goulson Dave, 10.1023/a:1013307822575
  46. Carvell C, Meek W.R, Pywell R.F, Nowakowski M, The response of foraging bumblebees to successional change in newly created arable field margins, 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.09.012
  47. Pywell R. F., Meek W. R., Hulmes L., Hulmes S., James K. L., Nowakowski M., Carvell C., Management to enhance pollen and nectar resources for bumblebees and butterflies within intensively farmed landscapes, 10.1007/s10841-011-9383-x
  48. Blaauw Brett R., Isaacs Rufus, Flower plantings increase wild bee abundance and the pollination services provided to a pollination-dependent crop, 10.1111/1365-2664.12257
  49. Potts Simon G., Vulliamy Betsy, Dafni Amots, Ne'eman Gidi, Willmer Pat, LINKING BEES AND FLOWERS: HOW DO FLORAL COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE POLLINATOR COMMUNITIES?, 10.1890/02-0136
  50. Roulston T'ai H., Goodell Karen, The Role of Resources and Risks in Regulating Wild Bee Populations, 10.1146/annurev-ento-120709-144802
  51. Larson Jonathan L., Kesheimer Adam J., Potter Daniel A., Pollinator assemblages on dandelions and white clover in urban and suburban lawns, 10.1007/s10841-014-9694-9
  52. Loper Gerald M., Cohen Allen C., Amino Acid Content of Dandelion Pollen, a Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Nutritional Evaluation, 10.1093/jee/80.1.14
  53. Roulston T. H., Cane J. H., Pollen nutritional content and digestibility for animals, 10.1007/bf00984102
  54. Hanley M. E., Franco M., Pichon S., Darvill B., Goulson D., Breeding system, pollinator choice and variation in pollen quality in British herbaceous plants, 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01415.x
  55. C Stace (2010)
  56. Buchmann Stephen L., O'rourke Mary Kay, Importance of pollen grain volumes for calculating bee diets, 10.1080/00173139109427817
  57. M Baude, Nature. Nature Publishing Group, 530, 85 (2016)
  58. COMBA L, Flowers, Nectar and Insect Visits: Evaluating British Plant Species for Pollinator-friendly Gardens, 10.1006/anbo.1998.0835
  59. Bolten Alan B., Feinsinger Peter, Baker Herbert G., Baker Irene, On the calculation of sugar concentration in flower nectar, 10.1007/bf00377434
  60. OE Prys-Jones (1991)
  61. Gong Y.-B., Huang S.-Q., Interspecific variation in pollen-ovule ratio is negatively correlated with pollen transfer efficiency in a natural community, 10.1111/plb.12151
  62. J Shenstone, J Bot, 50, 117 (1912)
  63. Wickham Hadley, ggplot2, ISBN:9780387981406, 10.1007/978-0-387-98141-3
  64. Peterson BG, Carl P. PerformanceAnalytics: Econometric tools for performance and risk analysis. R package version 1.4.3541. 2014.
  65. (2015)
  66. Pohlert T. The Pairwise Multiple Comparison of Mean Ranks Package (PMCMR). R package; 2014.
  67. Wang Yi, Naumann Ulrike, Wright Stephen T., Warton David I., mvabund- anRpackage for model-based analysis of multivariate abundance data : Themvabund Rpackage, 10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00190.x
  68. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, et al. Vegan: Community Ecology Package [Internet]. R package; 2015. Available:
  69. Dafni A, Kevan PG, Husband BC. Practical Pollination Biology. Dafni A, Kevan PG, Husband BC, editors. 2005.
  70. Vanparys Valérie, Comparative study of the reproductive ecology of two co-occurring related plant species: the invasiveSenecio inaequidensand the nativeJacobaea vulgaris, 10.5091/plecevo.2011.434
  71. Dover John W., Factors Affecting the Distribution of Satyrid Butterflies on Arable Farmland, 10.2307/2404943
  72. NE Raine, Entomol Gen, 30, 191 (2007)
  74. WIST TYLER J., DAVIS ARTHUR R., Floral Nectar Production and Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae), 10.1093/aob/mcj027
  75. Yoccoz Nigel G., Nichols James D., Boulinier Thierry, Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time, 10.1016/s0169-5347(01)02205-4
  76. Petanidou Theodora, Goethals Valérie, Smets Erik, Goethals Valerie, The Effect of Nutrient and Water Availability on Nectar Secretion and Nectary Structure of the Dominant Labiatae Species of Phrygana, 10.2307/3668604
  77. LEISS K. A., KLINKHAMER P. G. L., Genotype by environment interactions in the nectar production of Echium vulgare, 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2005.00986.x
  78. Schmidt Kilián, Filep Rita, Orosz-Kovács Zsuzsanna, Farkas Ágnes, Patterns of nectar and pollen presentation influence the attractiveness of four raspberry and blackberry cultivars to pollinators, 10.1080/14620316.2015.11513152
  79. RL Kaczorowski, Evolution (N Y), 62, 1738 (2008)
  80. Decourtye Axel, Mader Eric, Desneux Nicolas, Landscape enhancement of floral resources for honey bees in agro-ecosystems, 10.1051/apido/2010024
  81. Pocock M. J. O., Evans D. M., Memmott J., The Robustness and Restoration of a Network of Ecological Networks, 10.1126/science.1214915
  82. Bretagnolle Vincent, Gaba Sabrina, Weeds for bees? A review, 10.1007/s13593-015-0302-5
  83. Lazaro A., Totland O., Population dependence in the interactions with neighbors for pollination: A field experiment with Taraxacum officinale, 10.3732/ajb.0900263
  84. Cook Samantha M., Awmack Caroline S., Murray Darren A., Williams Ingrid H., Are honey bees' foraging preferences affected by pollen amino acid composition?, 10.1046/j.1365-2311.2003.00548.x
  85. Weiner Christiane Natalie, Hilpert Andrea, Werner Michael, Linsenmair Karl Eduard, Blüthgen Nico, Pollen amino acids and flower specialisation in solitary bees, 10.1051/apido/2009083
  86. Erhardt Andreas, Rusterholz Hans-Peter, Do Peacock butterflies ( Inachis io L.) detect and prefer nectar amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds?, 10.1007/s004420050690
  87. Di Pasquale Garance, Salignon Marion, Le Conte Yves, Belzunces Luc P., Decourtye Axel, Kretzschmar André, Suchail Séverine, Brunet Jean-Luc, Alaux Cédric, Influence of Pollen Nutrition on Honey Bee Health: Do Pollen Quality and Diversity Matter?, 10.1371/journal.pone.0072016
  88. Genissel A., Aupinel P., Bressac C., Tasei J.-N., Chevrier C., Influence of pollen origin on performance of Bombus terrestris micro-colonies, 10.1046/j.1570-7458.2002.01019.x
  89. R Moerman, J Econ Entomol (2015)
  90. A Jivan, Sci Pap Anim Sci Biotechnol, 44, 263 (2011)
  91. Maurizio A. Untersuchungen ilber den Einfluss der Pollenemahrung und Brutpflege auf die Lebensdauer und den physiologischen Zustand der Bienen. Report of the XlVth Int Beekeeping congr. Leamington Spa.; 1951. p. 320.
  93. Williams Neal M., Use of novel pollen species by specialist and generalist solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), 10.1007/s00442-002-1104-4
  94. Larkin Leah L., Neff John L., Simpson Beryl B., The evolution of a pollen diet: Host choice and diet breadth ofAndrenabees (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), 10.1051/apido:2007064
  96. MÜLLER ANDREAS, KUHLMANN MICHAEL, Pollen hosts of western palaearctic bees of the genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): the Asteraceae paradox : POLLEN HOSTS OF COLLETES BEES, 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01113.x
  97. Balzan Mario V., Bocci Gionata, Moonen Anna-Camilla, Augmenting flower trait diversity in wildflower strips to optimise the conservation of arthropod functional groups for multiple agroecosystem services, 10.1007/s10841-014-9680-2
  98. Balzan Mario V., Bocci Gionata, Moonen Anna-Camilla, Utilisation of plant functional diversity in wildflower strips for the delivery of multiple agroecosystem services, 10.1111/eea.12403
  99. Storkey Jonathan, Döring Thomas, Baddeley John, Collins Rosemary, Roderick Stephen, Jones Hannah, Watson Christine, Engineering a plant community to deliver multiple ecosystem services, 10.1890/14-1605.1
  100. Pinheiro L. A., Torres L., Raimundo J., Santos S. A. P., Effect of seven species of the family Asteraceae on longevity and nutrient levels of Episyrphus balteatus, 10.1007/s10526-013-9535-x
  101. Speranza A., Calzoni G. L., Pacini E., Occurrence of mono- or disaccharides and polysaccharide reserves in mature pollen grains, 10.1007/s004970050076
  102. Adler Lynn S., The ecological significance of toxic nectar, 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2000.910301.x
  103. Nicolson Susan W., Bee food: the chemistry and nutritional value of nectar, pollen and mixtures of the two, 10.1080/15627020.2011.11407495
  104. Rusterholz Hans-Peter, Erhardt A.N.dreas, Can nectar properties explain sex-specific flower preferences in the Adonis Blue butterfly Lysandra bellargus?, 10.1046/j.1365-2311.2000.00233.x
  105. WESTBURY D B, WOODCOCK B A, HARRIS S J, BROWN V K, POTTS S G, The effects of seed mix and management on the abundance of desirable and pernicious unsown species in arable buffer strip communities, 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2007.00614.x
  106. Stang Martina, Klinkhamer Peter G. L., van der Meijden Eddy, Size constraints and flower abundance determine the number of interactions in a plant-flower visitor web, 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2006.14199.x
  107. Ulrich Roger S., Human responses to vegetation and landscapes, 10.1016/0169-2046(86)90005-8
  108. R Kaplan (1989)
  109. Nohl Werner, Sustainable landscape use and aesthetic perception–preliminary reflections on future landscape aesthetics, 10.1016/s0169-2046(01)00138-4
  110. DICKS LYNN V., BAUDE MATHILDE, ROBERTS STUART P. M., PHILLIPS JAMES, GREEN MIKE, CARVELL CLAIRE, How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge : Flower-rich habitat for pollinators, 10.1111/een.12226
  111. Harrington James B., Metzger Kurt, Ragweed Pollen Density, 10.2307/2440028
  112. Sosnoskie L. M., Webster T. M., Dales D., Rains G. C., Grey T. L., Culpepper A. S., Pollen Grain Size, Density, and Settling Velocity for Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), 10.1614/ws-08-157.1
  113. Hrassnigg Norbert, Crailsheim Karl, Differences in drone and worker physiology in honeybees (Apis mellifera), 10.1051/apido:2005015
  114. Brodschneider Robert, Crailsheim Karl, Nutrition and health in honey bees, 10.1051/apido/2010012
  115. Goodwin S G, Seasonal phenology and abundance of early-, mid- and long-season bumble bees in southern England, 1985–1989, 10.1080/00218839.1995.11100891
  116. Stelzer Ralph J., Chittka Lars, Carlton Marc, Ings Thomas C., Winter Active Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) Achieve High Foraging Rates in Urban Britain, 10.1371/journal.pone.0009559
  117. MacIvor J. S., Cabral J. M., Packer L., Pollen specialization by solitary bees in an urban landscape, 10.1007/s11252-013-0321-4
  118. Courtney S. P., Hill C. J., Westerman A., Pollen Carried for Long Periods by Butterflies, 10.2307/3544030
  119. Fussell M., Corbet Sarah A., Flower Usage by Bumble-Bees: A Basis for Forage Plant Management, 10.2307/2404513
  120. J Stimec, Can Field-Naturalist, 111, 454 (1997)
  121. PFRCIVAL MARY, POLLEN COLLECTION BY APIS MELLIFERA, 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1947.tb05076.x
  122. Synge A. D., Pollen Collection by Honeybees (Apis mellifera), 10.2307/1492
  123. Macior Lazarus W., Bombus (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Queen Foraging in Relation to Vernal Pollination in Wisconsin, 10.2307/1933556
  124. Free J. B., Williams Ingrid H., Influence of the Location of Honeybee Colonies on Their Choice of Pollen Sources, 10.2307/2401754
  125. STONE GRAHAM N., LODER PHILIP M. J., M.BLACKBURN TIM, Foraging and courtship behaviour in males of the solitary bee Anthophora plumipes (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae): thermal physiology and the roles of body size, 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1995.tb00443.x
  126. STONE GRAHAM N., Activity patterns of females of the solitary bee Anthophora plumipes in relation to temperature, nectar supplies and body size, 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1994.tb00408.x
  127. Meeus Sofie, Brys Rein, Honnay Olivier, Jacquemyn Hans, Biological Flora of the British Isles:Pulmonaria officinalis, 10.1111/1365-2745.12150
  128. Rathcke B, Lacey E P, Phenological Patterns of Terrestrial Plants, 10.1146/
  129. Pernal Stephen F., Currie Robert W., Pollen quality of fresh and 1-year-old single pollen diets for worker honey bees (Apis melliferaL.), 10.1051/apido:2000130
  130. Chambers V. H., An Examination of the Pollen Loads of Andrena: The Species that Visit Fruit Trees, 10.2307/1621
  131. Kracker Selzer Amy, Heller Patrick, The spatial dynamics of middle-class formation in postapartheid South Africa: enclavization and fragmentation in Johannesburg, Political Power and Social Theory (2010) ISBN:9780857243256 p.171-208, 10.1108/s0198-8719(2010)0000021012
  132. A Haß, Mitt Dtsch Ges allg angew Ent, 18, 147 (2012)
  133. Kovács-Hostyánszki Anikó, Haenke Sebastian, Batáry Péter, Jauker Birgit, Báldi András, Tscharntke Teja, Holzschuh Andrea, Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales, 10.1890/12-2012.1
  134. Parmentier Laurian, Meeus Ivan, Cheroutre Lore, Mommaerts Veerle, Louwye Stephen, Smagghe Guy, Commercial bumblebee hives to assess an anthropogenic environment for pollinator support: a case study in the region of Ghent (Belgium), 10.1007/s10661-013-3543-2
  135. Raw Anthony, Pollen Preferences of Three Osmia Species (Hymenoptera), 10.2307/3543545
  136. KA Orford, J Appl Ecol
  137. Salisbury Andrew, Armitage James, Bostock Helen, Perry Joe, Tatchell Mark, Thompson Ken, EDITOR'S CHOICE: Enhancing gardens as habitats for flower-visiting aerial insects (pollinators): should we plant native or exotic species?, 10.1111/1365-2664.12499