User menu

Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: From CMIP3 to CMIP5

Bibliographic reference Dufresne, J.-L. ; Foujols, M.-A. ; Fichefet, Thierry ; et. al. Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: From CMIP3 to CMIP5 . In: Climate Dynamics, Vol. 40, no.9-10, p. 2123-2165 (2013)
Permanent URL
  1. Alexander Michael A., Bladé Ileana, Newman Matthew, Lanzante John R., Lau Ngar-Cheung, Scott James D., The Atmospheric Bridge: The Influence of ENSO Teleconnections on Air–Sea Interaction over the Global Oceans, 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2205:tabtio>;2
  2. Alkama Ramdane, Kageyama M., Ramstein G., Marti O., Ribstein P., Swingedouw D., Impact of a realistic river routing in coupled ocean–atmosphere simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate, 10.1007/s00382-007-0330-1
  3. Andrews Timothy, Forster Piers M., CO2forcing induces semi-direct effects with consequences for climate feedback interpretations, 10.1029/2007gl032273
  4. Arakawa Akio, Lamb Vivian R., A Potential Enstrophy and Energy Conserving Scheme for the Shallow Water Equations, 10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0018:apeaec>;2
  5. Aumont O., Bopp L., Globalizing results from ocean in situ iron fertilization studies : GLOBALIZING IRON FERTILIZATION, 10.1029/2005gb002591
  6. Aumont O., Bopp L., Schulz M., What does temporal variability in aeolian dust deposition contribute to sea-surface iron and chlorophyll distributions? : IMPACT OF DUST TEMPORAL VARIABILITY, 10.1029/2007gl031131
  7. Axell Lars B., Wind-driven internal waves and Langmuir circulations in a numerical ocean model of the southern Baltic Sea, 10.1029/2001jc000922
  8. Balkanski Y (2011) L’influence des aérosols sur le climat. Thèse d’Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches. Université Versailles Saint Quentin, France
  9. Balkanski Y., Myhre G., Gauss M., Rädel G., Highwood E. J., Shine K. P., Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport: from road, shipping and aviation, 10.5194/acp-10-4477-2010
  10. Ball J. Timothy, Woodrow Ian E., Berry Joseph A., A Model Predicting Stomatal Conductance and its Contribution to the Control of Photosynthesis under Different Environmental Conditions, Progress in Photosynthesis Research (1987) ISBN:9789401705219 p.221-224, 10.1007/978-94-017-0519-6_48
  11. Barnier Bernard, Du Penhoat Yves, Fu Lee-Lueng, Morrow Rosemary, Verron Jacques, Woodworth Phil, Editorial, 10.1007/s10236-006-0090-1
  12. Beckmann A., Döscher R., A Method for Improved Representation of Dense Water Spreading over Topography in Geopotential-Coordinate Models, 10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<0581:amfiro>;2
  13. Bellenger Hugo, Duvel Jean-Philippe, Lengaigne Matthieu, Levan Phu, Impact of organized intraseasonal convective perturbations on the tropical circulation, 10.1029/2009gl039584
  14. Blanke Bruno, Delecluse Pascale, Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Simulated by a General Circulation Model with Two Different Mixed-Layer Physics, 10.1175/1520-0485(1993)023<1363:vottao>;2
  15. Bony Sandrine, Emanuel Kerry A., A Parameterization of the Cloudiness Associated with Cumulus Convection; Evaluation Using TOGA COARE Data, 10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<3158:apotca>;2
  16. BOUCHER OLIVIER, LOHMANN ULRIKE, The sulfate-CCN-cloud albedo effect., 10.1034/j.1600-0889.47.issue3.1.x
  17. Boucher O., Pham M., History of sulfate aerosol radiative forcings : HISTORY OF SULFATE AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCINGS, 10.1029/2001gl014048
  18. Braconnot P., Hourdin F., Bony S., Dufresne J. L., Grandpeix J. Y., Marti O., Impact of different convective cloud schemes on the simulation of the tropical seasonal cycle in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model, 10.1007/s00382-007-0244-y
  19. Brohan P., Kennedy J. J., Harris I., Tett S. F. B., Jones P. D., Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: A new data set from 1850, 10.1029/2005jd006548
  20. Burchard Hans, Rennau Hannes, Comparative quantification of physically and numerically induced mixing in ocean models, 10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.10.003
  21. Cadule P., Bopp L., Friedlingstein P., A revised estimate of the processes contributing to global warming due to climate-carbon feedback, 10.1029/2009gl038681
  22. Cassou Christophe, Intraseasonal interaction between the Madden–Julian Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, 10.1038/nature07286
  23. Cattiaux Julien, Douville Hervé, Ribes Aurélien, Chauvin Fabrice, Plante Chloé, Towards a better understanding of changes in wintertime cold extremes over Europe: a pilot study with CNRM and IPSL atmospheric models, 10.1007/s00382-012-1436-7
  24. Cheruy F., Campoy A., Dupont J.-C., Ducharne A., Hourdin F., Haeffelin M., Chiriaco M., Idelkadi A., Combined influence of atmospheric physics and soil hydrology on the simulated meteorology at the SIRTA atmospheric observatory, 10.1007/s00382-012-1469-y
  25. Chou Chia, Neelin J. David, Mechanisms of Global Warming Impacts on Regional Tropical Precipitation*, 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2688:mogwio>;2
  26. Chou Chia, Neelin J. David, Chen Chao-An, Tu Jien-Yi, Evaluating the “Rich-Get-Richer” Mechanism in Tropical Precipitation Change under Global Warming, 10.1175/2008jcli2471.1
  27. Cionni I., Eyring V., Lamarque J. F., Randel W. J., Stevenson D. S., Wu F., Bodeker G. E., Shepherd T. G., Shindell D. T., Waugh D. W., Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing, 10.5194/acp-11-11267-2011
  28. Clement Amy, DiNezio Pedro, Deser Clara, Rethinking the Ocean’s Role in the Southern Oscillation, 10.1175/2011jcli3973.1
  29. Cleveland RB, Cleveland WS, McRae J, Terpenning I (1990) STL: A seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess. J Off Stat 6(1):3–73
  30. Collatz GJ, Ribas-Carbo M, Berry JA, Coupled Photosynthesis-Stomatal Conductance Model for Leaves of C4Plants, 10.1071/pp9920519
  31. Cravatte Sophie, Madec Gurvan, Izumo Takeshi, Menkes Christophe, Bozec Alexandra, Progress in the 3-D circulation of the eastern equatorial Pacific in a climate ocean model, 10.1016/j.ocemod.2006.11.003
  32. Déandreis C (2008) Impact des aérosols anthropiques sur le climat présent et futur. Thèse, Université Pierre et Marie Curie
  33. Déandreis C., Balkanski Y., Dufresne J. L., Cozic A., Radiative forcing estimates of sulfate aerosol in coupled climate-chemistry models with emphasis on the role of the temporal variability, 10.5194/acp-12-5583-2012
  34. Doherty Ruth M., Hulme Mike, Jones Colin G., A gridded reconstruction of land and ocean precipitation for the extended tropics from 1974 to 1994, 10.1002/(sici)1097-0088(199902)19:2<119::aid-joc358>;2-x
  35. d'Orgeval T., Polcher J., de Rosnay P., Sensitivity of the West African hydrological cycle in ORCHIDEE to infiltration processes, 10.5194/hess-12-1387-2008
  36. Ducoudré Nathale I., Laval Katia, Perrier Alain, SECHIBA, a New Set of Parameterizations of the Hydrologic Exchanges at the Land-Atmosphere Interface within the LMD Atmospheric General Circulation Model, 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<0248:sansop>;2
  37. Dufresne Jean-Louis, Bony Sandrine, An Assessment of the Primary Sources of Spread of Global Warming Estimates from Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean Models, 10.1175/2008jcli2239.1
  38. Dufresne JL, Quaas J, Boucher O, Denvil F, Fairhead L (2005) Contrasts in the effects on climate of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols between the 20th and the 21st century. Geophys Res Lett 32:L21,703. doi: 10.1029/2005GL023,619
  39. Duvel Jean Philippe, Bellenger Hugo, Bellon Gilles, Remaud Marine, An event-by-event assessment of tropical intraseasonal perturbations for general circulation models, 10.1007/s00382-012-1303-6
  40. Emanuel Kerry A., A Scheme for Representing Cumulus Convection in Large-Scale Models, 10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<2313:asfrcc>;2
  41. Emile-Geay J., Madec G., Geothermal heating, diapycnal mixing and the abyssal circulation, 10.5194/os-5-203-2009
  42. Emori S., Brown S. J., Dynamic and thermodynamic changes in mean and extreme precipitation under changed climate : MEAN AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION CHANGES, 10.1029/2005gl023272
  43. Escudier R., Mignot J., Swingedouw D., A 20-year coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere variability mode in the North Atlantic in an AOGCM, 10.1007/s00382-012-1402-4
  44. Eyring V., Cionni I., Bodeker G. E., Charlton-Perez A. J., Kinnison D. E., Scinocca J. F., Waugh D. W., Akiyoshi H., Bekki S., Chipperfield M. P., Dameris M., Dhomse S., Frith S. M., Garny H., Gettelman A., Kubin A., Langematz U., Mancini E., Marchand M., Nakamura T., Oman L. D., Pawson S., Pitari G., Plummer D. A., Rozanov E., Shepherd T. G., Shibata K., Tian W., Braesicke P., Hardiman S. C., Lamarque J. F., Morgenstern O., Pyle J. A., Smale D., Yamashita Y., Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models, 10.5194/acp-10-9451-2010
  45. Eyring V., Cionni I., Lamarque J. F., Akiyoshi H., Bodeker G. E., Charlton-Perez A. J., Frith S. M., Gettelman A., Kinnison D. E., Nakamura T., Oman L. D., Pawson S., Yamashita Y., Sensitivity of 21st century stratospheric ozone to greenhouse gas scenarios : SENSITIVITY OF OZONE TO GHG SCENARIOS, 10.1029/2010gl044443
  46. Eyring V, Cionni I, Arblaster J, Sedlácek J, Perlwitz J, Young P, Bekki S, Bergmann D, Cameron-Smith P, Collins W, Faluvegi G, Gottschaldt KD, Horowitz L, Kinnison D, Lamarque JF, Marsh D, Saint-Martin D, Shindell D, Sudo K, Szopa S, Watanabe S (2012) Long-term changes in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone and associated climate impacts in CMIP5 simulations. J Geophys Res Atm (in review)
  47. Farquhar G. D., von Caemmerer S., Berry J. A., A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species, 10.1007/bf00386231
  48. Fichefet T., Maqueda M. A. Morales, Sensitivity of a global sea ice model to the treatment of ice thermodynamics and dynamics, 10.1029/97jc00480
  49. Fichefet T., Maqueda M. A. Morales, Modelling the influence of snow accumulation and snow-ice formation on the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea-ice cover, 10.1007/s003820050280
  50. Folberth G. A., Hauglustaine D. A., Lathière J., Brocheton F., Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact analysis of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry, 10.5194/acp-6-2273-2006
  51. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, LeanDC Jand Lowe, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, Van Dorland R (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the scientific basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, chap 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 129–234
  52. Fouquart Y, Bonnel B (1980) Computations of solar heating of the Earth’s atmosphere: a new parametrization. Contrib Atmos Phys 53:35–62
  53. Friedlingstein P., Cox P., Betts R., Bopp L., von Bloh W., Brovkin V., Cadule P., Doney S., Eby M., Fung I., Bala G., John J., Jones C., Joos F., Kato T., Kawamiya M., Knorr W., Lindsay K., Matthews H. D., Raddatz T., Rayner P., Reick C., Roeckner E., Schnitzler K.-G., Schnur R., Strassmann K., Weaver A. J., Yoshikawa C., Zeng N., Climate–Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison, 10.1175/jcli3800.1
  54. Fr�hlich Claus, Lean Judith, Solar radiative output and its variability: evidence and mechanisms, 10.1007/s00159-004-0024-1
  55. Gastineau Guillaume, D’Andrea Fabio, Frankignoul Claude, Atmospheric response to the North Atlantic Ocean variability on seasonal to decadal time scales, 10.1007/s00382-012-1333-0
  56. Gent Peter R., Mcwilliams James C., Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean Circulation Models, 10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<0150:imiocm>;2
  57. Goulet Laurent, Duvel Jean-Philippe, A New Approach to Detect and Characterize Intermittent Atmospheric Oscillations: Application to the Intraseasonal Oscillation, 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2397:anatda>;2
  58. Grandpeix Jean-Yves, Lafore Jean-Philippe, A Density Current Parameterization Coupled with Emanuel’s Convection Scheme. Part I: The Models, 10.1175/2009jas3044.1
  59. Grandpeix Jean-Yves, Lafore Jean-Philippe, Cheruy Frédérique, A Density Current Parameterization Coupled with Emanuel’s Convection Scheme. Part II: 1D Simulations, 10.1175/2009jas3045.1
  60. Gregory Jonathan, Webb Mark, Tropospheric Adjustment Induces a Cloud Component in CO2Forcing, 10.1175/2007jcli1834.1
  61. Gregory J. M., A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity, 10.1029/2003gl018747
  62. Guemas Virginie, Codron Francis, Differing Impacts of Resolution Changes in Latitude and Longitude on the Midlatitudes in the LMDZ Atmospheric GCM, 10.1175/2011jcli4093.1
  63. Guilyardi Eric, Wittenberg Andrew, Fedorov Alexey, Collins Mat, Wang Chunzai, Capotondi Antonietta, van Oldenborgh Geert Jan, Stockdale Tim, Understanding El Niño in Ocean–Atmosphere General Circulation Models: Progress and Challenges, 10.1175/2008bams2387.1
  64. Hall Alex, The Role of Surface Albedo Feedback in Climate, 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<1550:trosaf>;2
  65. Hansen J., Sato M., Kharecha P., von Schuckmann K., Earth's energy imbalance and implications, 10.5194/acp-11-13421-2011
  66. Hansen J., Efficacy of climate forcings, 10.1029/2005jd005776
  67. Hauglustaine D. A., Hourdin F., Jourdain L., Filiberti M.-A., Walters S., Lamarque J.-F., Holland E. A., Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: Description and background tropospheric chemistry evaluation : INTERACTIVE CHEMISTRY IN LMDZ, 10.1029/2003jd003957
  68. Held Isaac M., Soden Brian J., Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming, 10.1175/jcli3990.1
  69. Hibler W. D., A Dynamic Thermodynamic Sea Ice Model, 10.1175/1520-0485(1979)009<0815:adtsim>;2
  70. Hourdin Frédéric, Armengaud Alexandre, The Use of Finite-Volume Methods for Atmospheric Advection of Trace Species. Part I: Test of Various Formulations in a General Circulation Model, 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<0822:tuofvm>;2
  71. Hourdin Frédéric, Couvreux Fleur, Menut Laurent, Parameterization of the Dry Convective Boundary Layer Based on a Mass Flux Representation of Thermals, 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<1105:potdcb>;2
  72. Hourdin Frédéric, Musat Ionela, Bony Sandrine, Braconnot Pascale, Codron Francis, Dufresne Jean-Louis, Fairhead Laurent, Filiberti Marie-Angèle, Friedlingstein Pierre, Grandpeix Jean-Yves, Krinner Gerhard, LeVan Phu, Li Zhao-Xin, Lott François, The LMDZ4 general circulation model: climate performance and sensitivity to parametrized physics with emphasis on tropical convection, 10.1007/s00382-006-0158-0
  73. Hourdin Frédéric, Foujols Marie-Alice, Codron Francis, Guemas Virginie, Dufresne Jean-Louis, Bony Sandrine, Denvil Sébastien, Guez Lionel, Lott François, Ghattas Josefine, Braconnot Pascale, Marti Olivier, Meurdesoif Yann, Bopp Laurent, Impact of the LMDZ atmospheric grid configuration on the climate and sensitivity of the IPSL-CM5A coupled model, 10.1007/s00382-012-1411-3
  74. Hourdin Frédéric, Grandpeix Jean-Yves, Rio Catherine, Bony Sandrine, Jam Arnaud, Cheruy Frédérique, Rochetin Nicolas, Fairhead Laurent, Idelkadi Abderrahmane, Musat Ionela, Dufresne Jean-Louis, Lahellec Alain, Lefebvre Marie-Pierre, Roehrig Romain, LMDZ5B: the atmospheric component of the IPSL climate model with revisited parameterizations for clouds and convection, 10.1007/s00382-012-1343-y
  75. Huffman George J., Adler Robert F., Morrissey Mark M., Bolvin David T., Curtis Scott, Joyce Robert, McGavock Brad, Susskind Joel, Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multisatellite Observations, 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0036:gpaodd>;2
  76. Hurtt G. C., Chini L. P., Frolking S., Betts R. A., Feddema J., Fischer G., Fisk J. P., Hibbard K., Houghton R. A., Janetos A., Jones C. D., Kindermann G., Kinoshita T., Klein Goldewijk Kees, Riahi K., Shevliakova E., Smith S., Stehfest E., Thomson A., Thornton P., van Vuuren D. P., Wang Y. P., Harmonization of land-use scenarios for the period 1500–2100: 600 years of global gridded annual land-use transitions, wood harvest, and resulting secondary lands, 10.1007/s10584-011-0153-2
  77. IPCC (2007) In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the scientific basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 996
  78. Jam A., Hourdin F., Rio C., Couvreux F., Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part III: Derivation of a Statistical Scheme for Cumulus Clouds, 10.1007/s10546-012-9789-3
  79. Johns T. C., Royer J.-F., Höschel I., Huebener H., Roeckner E., Manzini E., May W., Dufresne J.-L., Otterå O. H., van Vuuren D. P., Salas y Melia D., Giorgetta M. A., Denvil S., Yang S., Fogli P. G., Körper J., Tjiputra J. F., Stehfest E., Hewitt C. D., Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment, 10.1007/s00382-011-1005-5
  80. Jones P. D., New M., Parker D. E., Martin S., Rigor I. G., Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years, 10.1029/1999rg900002
  81. Jourdain L., Bekki S., Lott F., Lefèvre F., The coupled chemistry-climate model LMDz-REPROBUS: description and evaluation of a transient simulation of the period 1980–1999, 10.5194/angeo-26-1391-2008
  82. Kageyama Masa, Braconnot Pascale, Bopp Laurent, Caubel Arnaud, Foujols Marie-Alice, Guilyardi Eric, Khodri Myriam, Lloyd James, Lombard Fabien, Mariotti Véronique, Marti Olivier, Roy Tilla, Woillez Marie-Noëlle, Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum climate simulations with the IPSL model—part I: comparing IPSL_CM5A to IPSL_CM4, 10.1007/s00382-012-1488-8
  83. Kageyama Masa, Braconnot Pascale, Bopp Laurent, Mariotti Véronique, Roy Tilla, Woillez Marie-Noëlle, Caubel Arnaud, Foujols Marie-Alice, Guilyardi Eric, Khodri Myriam, Lloyd James, Lombard Fabien, Marti Olivier, Mid-Holocene and last glacial maximum climate simulations with the IPSL model: part II: model-data comparisons, 10.1007/s00382-012-1499-5
  84. Kanzow T., Cunningham S. A., Johns W. E., Hirschi J. J-M., Marotzke J., Baringer M. O., Meinen C. S., Chidichimo M. P., Atkinson C., Beal L. M., Bryden H. L., Collins J., Seasonal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N, 10.1175/2010jcli3389.1
  85. Kim Seon Tae, Jin Fei-Fei, An ENSO stability analysis. Part II: results from the twentieth and twenty-first century simulations of the CMIP3 models, 10.1007/s00382-010-0872-5
  86. Koch-Larrouy Ariane, Madec Gurvan, Bouruet-Aubertot Pascale, Gerkema Theo, Bessières Laurent, Molcard Robert, On the transformation of Pacific Water into Indonesian Throughflow Water by internal tidal mixing, 10.1029/2006gl028405
  87. Koch-Larrouy Ariane, Lengaigne Matthieu, Terray Pascal, Madec Gurvan, Masson Sebastien, Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system, 10.1007/s00382-009-0642-4
  88. Konsta D, Chepfer H, Dufresne JL, Idelkadi A, Cesana G (2013) Evaluation of clouds simulated by the LMDZ5 GCM using A-train satellite observations (CALIPSO-PARASOL-CERES). Clim Dyn (submitted)
  89. Krinner G., Viovy Nicolas, de Noblet-Ducoudré Nathalie, Ogée Jérôme, Polcher Jan, Friedlingstein Pierre, Ciais Philippe, Sitch Stephen, Prentice I. Colin, A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system : DVGM FOR COUPLED CLIMATE STUDIES, 10.1029/2003gb002199
  90. Lamarque J.-F., Bond T. C., Eyring V., Granier C., Heil A., Klimont Z., Lee D., Liousse C., Mieville A., Owen B., Schultz M. G., Shindell D., Smith S. J., Stehfest E., Van Aardenne J., Cooper O. R., Kainuma M., Mahowald N., McConnell J. R., Naik V., Riahi K., van Vuuren D. P., Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application, 10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010
  91. Lamarque Jean-François, Kyle G. Page, Meinshausen Malte, Riahi Keywan, Smith Steven J., van Vuuren Detlef P., Conley Andrew J., Vitt Francis, Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways, 10.1007/s10584-011-0155-0
  92. Large W. G., Yeager S. G., The global climatology of an interannually varying air–sea flux data set, 10.1007/s00382-008-0441-3
  93. Lathière J., Hauglustaine D. A., De Noblet-Ducoudré N., Krinner G., Folberth G. A., Past and future changes in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions simulated with a global dynamic vegetation model, 10.1029/2005gl024164
  94. Laval K., Sadourny R., Serafini Y., Land surface processes in a simplified general circulation model, 10.1080/03091928108243677
  95. Le Quéré Corinne, Raupach Michael R., Canadell Josep G., Marland et al. Gregg, Le Quéré et al. Corinne, Le Quéré et al. Corinne, Raupach Michael R., Canadell Josep G., Marland Gregg, Bopp Laurent, Ciais Philippe, Conway Thomas J., Doney Scott C., Feely Richard A., Foster Pru, Friedlingstein Pierre, Gurney Kevin, Houghton Richard A., House Joanna I., Huntingford Chris, Levy Peter E., Lomas Mark R., Majkut Joseph, Metzl Nicolas, Ometto Jean P., Peters Glen P., Prentice I. Colin, Randerson James T., Running Steven W., Sarmiento Jorge L., Schuster Ute, Sitch Stephen, Takahashi Taro, Viovy Nicolas, van der Werf Guido R., Woodward F. Ian, Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, 10.1038/ngeo689
  96. Le Sommer Julien, Penduff Thierry, Theetten Sébastien, Madec Gurvan, Barnier Bernard, How momentum advection schemes influence current-topography interactions at eddy permitting resolution, 10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.11.007
  97. Lean J (2009) Calculations of solar irradiance: monthly means from 1882 to 2008, annual means from 1610 to 2008.
  98. Lean Judith, Rottman Gary, Harder Jerald, Kopp Greg, SORCE Contributions to New Understanding of Global Change and Solar Variability, 10.1007/s11207-005-1527-2
  99. Lefèvre F., Brasseur G. P., Folkins I., Smith A. K., Simon P., Chemistry of the 1991–1992 stratospheric winter: Three-dimensional model simulations, 10.1029/93jd03476
  100. Lefèvre Franck, Figarol François, Carslaw Kenneth S., Peter Thomas, The 1997 Arctic Ozone depletion quantified from three-dimensional model simulations, 10.1029/98gl51812
  101. Lengaigne Matthieu, Menkes Christophe, Aumont Olivier, Gorgues Thomas, Bopp Laurent, André Jean-Michel, Madec Gurvan, Influence of the oceanic biology on the tropical Pacific climate in a coupled general circulation model, 10.1007/s00382-006-0200-2
  102. Lengaigne Matthieu, Madec Gurvan, Bopp Laurent, Menkes Christophe, Aumont Olivier, Cadule Patricia, Bio-physical feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean using an Earth system model, 10.1029/2009gl040145
  103. Lenton Andrew, Codron Francis, Bopp Laurent, Metzl Nicolas, Cadule Patricia, Tagliabue Alessandro, Le Sommer Julien, Stratospheric ozone depletion reduces ocean carbon uptake and enhances ocean acidification, 10.1029/2009gl038227
  104. Liebmann B, Smith CA (1996) Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77(6):1275–1277
  105. Lloyd J, Guilyardi E, Weller H (2011) The role of atmosphere feedbacks during ENSO in the CMIP3 models. Part II: using AMIP runs to understand the heat flux feedback mechanisms. Clim Dyn 37(7–8):1271–1292. doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0895-y
  106. Lloyd James, Guilyardi Eric, Weller Hilary, The Role of Atmosphere Feedbacks during ENSO in the CMIP3 Models. Part III: The Shortwave Flux Feedback, 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00178.1
  107. Lott François, Alleviation of Stationary Biases in a GCM through a Mountain Drag Parameterization Scheme and a Simple Representation of Mountain Lift Forces, 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<0788:aosbia>;2
  108. Lott François, Fairhead Laurent, Hourdin Frederic, Levan Phu, The stratospheric version of LMDz: dynamical climatologies, arctic oscillation, and impact on the surface climate, 10.1007/s00382-005-0064-x
  109. Louis Jean-Fran�ois, A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere, 10.1007/bf00117978
  110. Loveland T. R., Reed B. C., Brown J. F., Ohlen D. O., Zhu Z., Yang L., Merchant J. W., Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data, 10.1080/014311600210191
  111. Ludwig Wolfgang, Probst Jean-Luc, Kempe Stefan, Predicting the oceanic input of organic carbon by continental erosion, 10.1029/95gb02925
  112. Lyman John M., Good Simon A., Gouretski Viktor V., Ishii Masayoshi, Johnson Gregory C., Palmer Matthew D., Smith Doug M., Willis Josh K., Robust warming of the global upper ocean, 10.1038/nature09043
  113. Lévy Marina, Estublier Audrey, Madec Gurvan, Choice of an advection scheme for biogeochemical models, 10.1029/2001gl012947
  114. Madec G (2008) NEMO ocean engine. Technical note, IPSL, available at
  115. Madec Gurvan, Imbard Maurice, A global ocean mesh to overcome the North Pole singularity, 10.1007/bf00211684
  116. Madronich S, Flocke S (1998) The role of solar radiation in atmospheric chemistry. In: Boule P (eds) Handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–26
  117. Manabe Syukuro, Stouffer Ronald J., Sensitivity of a global climate model to an increase of CO2concentration in the atmosphere, 10.1029/jc085ic10p05529
  118. Marti Olivier, Braconnot P., Dufresne J.-L., Bellier J., Benshila R., Bony S., Brockmann P., Cadule P., Caubel A., Codron F., de Noblet N., Denvil S., Fairhead L., Fichefet T., Foujols M.-A., Friedlingstein P., Goosse H., Grandpeix J.-Y., Guilyardi E., Hourdin F., Idelkadi A., Kageyama M., Krinner G., Lévy C., Madec G., Mignot J., Musat I., Swingedouw D., Talandier C., Key features of the IPSL ocean atmosphere model and its sensitivity to atmospheric resolution, 10.1007/s00382-009-0640-6
  119. , Bellouin N., Collins W. J., Culverwell I. D., Halloran P. R., Hardiman S. C., Hinton T. J., Jones C. D., McDonald R. E., McLaren A. J., O'Connor F. M., Roberts M. J., Rodriguez J. M., Woodward S., Best M. J., Brooks M. E., Brown A. R., Butchart N., Dearden C., Derbyshire S. H., Dharssi I., Doutriaux-Boucher M., Edwards J. M., Falloon P. D., Gedney N., Gray L. J., Hewitt H. T., Hobson M., Huddleston M. R., Hughes J., Ineson S., Ingram W. J., James P. M., Johns T. C., Johnson C. E., Jones A., Jones C. P., Joshi M. M., Keen A. B., Liddicoat S., Lock A. P., Maidens A. V., Manners J. C., Milton S. F., Rae J. G. L., Ridley J. K., Sellar A., Senior C. A., Totterdell I. J., Verhoef A., Vidale P. L., Wiltshire A., The HadGEM2 family of Met Office Unified Model climate configurations, 10.5194/gmd-4-723-2011
  120. Marzin Charline, Braconnot Pascale, Variations of Indian and African monsoons induced by insolation changes at 6 and 9.5 kyr BP, 10.1007/s00382-009-0538-3
  121. Maury Pauline, Lott François, Guez Lionel, Duvel Jean-Philippe, Tropical variability and stratospheric equatorial waves in the IPSLCM5 model, 10.1007/s00382-011-1273-0
  122. Meehl Gerald A., Covey Curt, McAvaney Bryant, Latif Mojib, Stouffer Ronald J., OVERVIEW OF THE COUPLED MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT, 10.1175/bams-86-1-89
  123. Meehl Gerald A., Covey Curt, Taylor Karl E., Delworth Thomas, Stouffer Ronald J., Latif Mojib, McAvaney Bryant, Mitchell John F. B., THE WCRP CMIP3 Multimodel Dataset: A New Era in Climate Change Research, 10.1175/bams-88-9-1383
  124. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ, Zhao ZC (2007) Global climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the scientific basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, chap 10. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 747–846
  125. Meinshausen Malte, Smith S. J., Calvin K., Daniel J. S., Kainuma M. L. T., Lamarque J-F., Matsumoto K., Montzka S. A., Raper S. C. B., Riahi K., Thomson A., Velders G. J. M., van Vuuren D.P. P., The RCP greenhouse gas concentrations and their extensions from 1765 to 2300, 10.1007/s10584-011-0156-z
  126. Mellor George, Blumberg Alan, Wave Breaking and Ocean Surface Layer Thermal Response, 10.1175/2517.1
  127. Menut Laurent, Tripathi Om P., Colette Augustin, Vautard Robert, Flaounas Emmanouil, Bessagnet Bertrand, Evaluation of regional climate simulations for air quality modelling purposes, 10.1007/s00382-012-1345-9
  128. Merryfield William J., Holloway Greg, Gargett Ann E., A Global Ocean Model with Double-Diffusive Mixing, 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1124:agomwd>;2
  129. Mitchell John F. B., Johns T. C., Eagles M., Ingram W. J., Davis R. A., 10.1023/a:1005466909820
  130. Morcrette JJ, Smith L, Fouquart Y (1986) Pressure and temperature dependence of the absorption in longwave radiation parametrizations. Contrib Atmos Phys 59(4):455–469
  131. Morgenstern O., Giorgetta M. A., Shibata K., Eyring V., Waugh D. W., Shepherd T. G., Akiyoshi H., Austin J., Baumgaertner A. J. G., Bekki S., Braesicke P., Brühl C., Chipperfield M. P., Cugnet D., Dameris M., Dhomse S., Frith S. M., Garny H., Gettelman A., Hardiman S. C., Hegglin M. I., Jöckel P., Kinnison D. E., Lamarque J.-F., Mancini E., Manzini E., Marchand M., Michou M., Nakamura T., Nielsen J. E., Olivié D., Pitari G., Plummer D. A., Rozanov E., Scinocca J. F., Smale D., Teyssèdre H., Toohey M., Tian W., Yamashita Y., Review of the formulation of present-generation stratospheric chemistry-climate models and associated external forcings, 10.1029/2009jd013728
  132. Morrissey Mark L., An Evaluation of Ship Data in the Equatorial Western Pacific, 10.1175/1520-0442(1990)003<0099:aeosdi>;2
  133. Moss Richard H., Edmonds Jae A., Hibbard Kathy A., Manning Martin R., Rose Steven K., van Vuuren Detlef P., Carter Timothy R., Emori Seita, Kainuma Mikiko, Kram Tom, Meehl Gerald A., Mitchell John F. B., Nakicenovic Nebojsa, Riahi Keywan, Smith Steven J., Stouffer Ronald J., Thomson Allison M., Weyant John P., Wilbanks Thomas J., The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment, 10.1038/nature08823
  134. Najjar R. G., Jin X., Louanchi F., Aumont O., Caldeira K., Doney S. C., Dutay J.-C., Follows M., Gruber N., Joos F., Lindsay K., Maier-Reimer E., Matear R. J., Matsumoto K., Monfray P., Mouchet A., Orr J. C., Plattner G.-K., Sarmiento J. L., Schlitzer R., Slater R. D., Weirig M.-F., Yamanaka Y., Yool A., Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen in the ocean: Results from Phase II of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2) : CIRCULATION IMPACT ON EXPORT PRODUCTION, 10.1029/2006gb002857
  135. Persechino A., Mignot J., Swingedouw D., Labetoulle S., Guilyardi E., Decadal predictability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and climate in the IPSL-CM5A-LR model, 10.1007/s00382-012-1466-1
  136. Pham M., Boucher O., Hauglustaine D., Changes in atmospheric sulfur burdens and concentrations and resulting radiative forcings under IPCC SRES emission scenarios for 1990-2100 : SULFATE UNDER SRES SCENARIOS, 10.1029/2004jd005125
  137. Piao Shilong, Ciais Philippe, Friedlingstein Pierre, de Noblet-Ducoudré Nathalie, Cadule Patricia, Viovy Nicolas, Wang Tao, Spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon cycle during the 20th century : CARBON CYCLE DURING THE 20TH CENTURY, 10.1029/2008gb003339
  138. Quaas Johannes, Boucher Olivier, Constraining the first aerosol indirect radiative forcing in the LMDZ GCM using POLDER and MODIS satellite data : CONSTRAINING THE AEROSOL INDIRECT EFFECT, 10.1029/2005gl023850
  139. Ramaswamy V, Boucher O, Haigh J, Hauglustaine D, Haywood J, Myhre G, Nakajima T, Shi G, Solomon S (2001) Radiative forcing of climate change. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of working group I to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, chap 6. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 349–416
  140. Rayner N. A., Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century, 10.1029/2002jd002670
  141. Rio Catherine, Hourdin Frédéric, A Thermal Plume Model for the Convective Boundary Layer: Representation of Cumulus Clouds, 10.1175/2007jas2256.1
  142. Rio C., Hourdin F., Couvreux F., Jam A., Resolved Versus Parametrized Boundary-Layer Plumes. Part II: Continuous Formulations of Mixing Rates for Mass-Flux Schemes, 10.1007/s10546-010-9478-z
  143. Rogelj Joeri, Meinshausen Malte, Knutti Reto, Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates, 10.1038/nclimate1385
  144. de Rosnay P., Polcher J., Modelling root water uptake in a complex land surface scheme coupled to a GCM, 10.5194/hess-2-239-1998
  145. de Rosnay P., Integrated parameterization of irrigation in the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Validation over Indian Peninsula, 10.1029/2003gl018024
  146. Sadourny R, Laval K (1984) January and July performance of the LMD general circulation model. In: New perspectives in climate modelling. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 173–198
  147. Sander SP, Friedl RR, Golden DM, Kurylo MJ, Moortgat GK, Keller-Rudek H, Wine PH, Ravishankara AR, Kolb CE, Molina MJ, Finlayson-Pitts BJ, Huie RE, Orkin VL (2006) Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies, evaluation no. 15. JPL Publication 06-2, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena (CA), USA,
  148. Sato Makiko, Hansen James E., McCormick M. Patrick, Pollack James B., Stratospheric aerosol optical depths, 1850–1990, 10.1029/93jd02553
  149. Schulz M (2007) Constraining model estimates of the aerosol radiative forcing. Thèse d’Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
  150. Schulz Michael, Balkanski Yves J., Guelle Walter, Dulac Francois, Role of aerosol size distribution and source location in a three-dimensional simulation of a Saharan dust episode tested against satellite-derived optical thickness, 10.1029/97jd02779
  151. Simmons Harper L., Jayne Steven R., Laurent Louis C.St., Weaver Andrew J., Tidally driven mixing in a numerical model of the ocean general circulation, 10.1016/s1463-5003(03)00011-8
  152. Son S.-W., Gerber E. P., Perlwitz J., Polvani L. M., Gillett N. P., Seo K.-H., Eyring V., Shepherd T. G., Waugh D., Akiyoshi H., Austin J., Baumgaertner A., Bekki S., Braesicke P., Brühl C., Butchart N., Chipperfield M. P., Cugnet D., Dameris M., Dhomse S., Frith S., Garny H., Garcia R., Hardiman S. C., Jöckel P., Lamarque J. F., Mancini E., Marchand M., Michou M., Nakamura T., Morgenstern O., Pitari G., Plummer D. A., Pyle J., Rozanov E., Scinocca J. F., Shibata K., Smale D., Teyssèdre H., Tian W., Yamashita Y., Impact of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere circulation change: A multimodel assessment, 10.1029/2010jd014271
  153. Stevens Bjorn, Schwartz Stephen E., Observing and Modeling Earth’s Energy Flows, 10.1007/s10712-012-9184-0
  154. STOMMEL HENRY, Thermohaline Convection with Two Stable Regimes of Flow, 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1961.tb00079.x
  155. Swart N. C., Fyfe J. C., Ocean carbon uptake and storage influenced by wind bias in global climate models, 10.1038/nclimate1289
  156. Swingedouw D., Braconnot P., Delecluse P., Guilyardi E., Marti O., The impact of global freshwater forcing on the thermohaline circulation: adjustment of North Atlantic convection sites in a CGCM, 10.1007/s00382-006-0171-3
  157. Swingedouw D., Braconnot P., Delecluse P., Guilyardi E., Marti O., Quantifying the AMOC feedbacks during a 2×CO2 stabilization experiment with land-ice melting, 10.1007/s00382-007-0250-0
  158. Swingedouw Didier, Mignot Juliette, Braconnot Pascale, Mosquet Eloi, Kageyama Masa, Alkama Ramdane, Impact of Freshwater Release in the North Atlantic under Different Climate Conditions in an OAGCM, 10.1175/2009jcli3028.1
  159. Swingedouw Didier, Mignot Juliette, Labetoulle Sonia, Guilyardi Eric, Madec Gurvan, Initialisation and predictability of the AMOC over the last 50 years in a climate model, 10.1007/s00382-012-1516-8
  160. Szopa Sophie, Balkanski Y., Schulz M., Bekki S., Cugnet D., Fortems-Cheiney A., Turquety S., Cozic A., Déandreis C., Hauglustaine D., Idelkadi A., Lathière J., Lefevre F., Marchand M., Vuolo R., Yan N., Dufresne J.-L., Aerosol and ozone changes as forcing for climate evolution between 1850 and 2100, 10.1007/s00382-012-1408-y
  161. Taylor Karl E., Stouffer Ronald J., Meehl Gerald A., An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design, 10.1175/bams-d-11-00094.1
  162. Terray Pascal, Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical forcing: a new paradigm for El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 10.1007/s00382-010-0825-z
  163. Tiedtke M., A Comprehensive Mass Flux Scheme for Cumulus Parameterization in Large-Scale Models, 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1779:acmfsf>;2
  164. Trenberth Kevin E., Fasullo John T., Tracking Earth’s Energy: From El Niño to Global Warming, 10.1007/s10712-011-9150-2
  165. Valcke S (2006) OASIS3 user’s guide (prism-2-5). Tech. Rep. TR/CMGC/06/73, PRISM Report No 3, CERFACS, Toulouse, France
  166. Van Leer Bram, Towards the ultimate conservative difference scheme. IV. A new approach to numerical convection, 10.1016/0021-9991(77)90095-x
  167. Vial Jessica, Osborn Tim J., Lott François, Sudden stratospheric warmings and tropospheric blockings in a multi-century simulation of the IPSL-CM5A coupled climate model, 10.1007/s00382-013-1675-2
  168. van Vuuren Detlef P., Edmonds Jae, Kainuma Mikiko, Riahi Keywan, Thomson Allison, Hibbard Kathy, Hurtt George C., Kram Tom, Krey Volker, Lamarque Jean-Francois, Masui Toshihiko, Meinshausen Malte, Nakicenovic Nebojsa, Smith Steven J., Rose Steven K., The representative concentration pathways: an overview, 10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z
  169. Wang Y.‐M., Lean J. L., Sheeley, Jr. N. R., Modeling the Sun’s Magnetic Field and Irradiance since 1713, 10.1086/429689
  170. Wanninkhof Rik, Relationship between wind speed and gas exchange over the ocean, 10.1029/92jc00188
  171. Wittenberg Andrew T., Are historical records sufficient to constrain ENSO simulations?, 10.1029/2009gl038710
  172. Xavier Prince K., Duvel Jean-Philippe, Braconnot Pascale, Doblas-Reyes Francisco J., An Evaluation Metric for Intraseasonal Variability and its Application to CMIP3 Twentieth-Century Simulations, 10.1175/2010jcli3260.1