User menu

Worrying exposure to trace elements in the population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

Bibliographic reference Tuakuila Kabengele, Joël ; Lison, Dominique ; Lantin, Anne-Catherine ; Mbuyi, François ; Deumer, Gladys ; et. al. Worrying exposure to trace elements in the population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 85, no. 8, p. 927-939 (2012)
Permanent URL
  1. Africa Rice Center (2007) Africa rice trends: overview of recent developments in the sub-Saharan Africa rice sector. Africa Rice Center Brief. Africa Rice Center (WARDA), Cotonou, 10 p. Available at . Accessed on December 2011
  2. Ancelle T (2002) Statistique Epidémiologie.1ère Ed. Maloine, Paris
  3. Banza Célestin Lubaba Nkulu, Nawrot Tim S., Haufroid Vincent, Decrée Sophie, De Putter Thierry, Smolders Erik, Kabyla Benjamin Ilunga, Luboya Oscar Numbi, Ilunga Augustin Ndala, Mutombo Alain Mwanza, Nemery Benoit, High human exposure to cobalt and other metals in Katanga, a mining area of the Democratic Republic of Congo, 10.1016/j.envres.2009.04.012
  4. Batáriová Andrea, Spěváčková Věra, Beneš Bohuslav, Čejchanová Mája, Šmíd Jiří, Černá Milena, Blood and urine levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in the general population of the Czech Republic and proposed reference values, 10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.02.005
  5. Caldwell Kathleen L, Jones Robert L, Verdon Carl P, Jarrett Jeffery M, Caudill Samuel P, Osterloh John D, Levels of urinary total and speciated arsenic in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, 10.1038/jes.2008.32
  6. Castaño Argelia, Sánchez-Rodríguez Jinny E., Cañas Ana, Esteban Marta, Navarro Carmen, Rodríguez-García Ana C., Arribas Misericordia, Díaz Gema, Jiménez-Guerrero José A., Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: A pilot human biomonitoring study, 10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.09.001
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011) Fourth National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals, updated tables. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Available at
  8. Choudhury K., Morris J., Harrison H., O'Moore E., Dangers from mercury, 10.1136/bmj.d1327
  9. Clancy Joy S., Urban ecological footprints in Africa, 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.01041.x
  10. Cleland Bill, Tsuchiya Ami, Kalman David A., Dills Russell, Burbacher Thomas M., White Jim W., Faustman Elaine M., Mariën Koenraad, Arsenic Exposure within the Korean Community (United States) Based on Dietary Behavior and Arsenic Levels in Hair, Urine, Air, and Water, 10.1289/ehp.11827
  11. Scher Aharon., Yarnitzky Chaim., Design and construction of a transistorized immersion oscillometer, 10.1021/ac00225a054
  12. European Commission (2008) EC Regulation No. 629/2008 of 2 July 2008 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs measures (lead, cadmium and mercury in food supplements, lead in mushrooms, cadmium in fish and mushrooms). OJ L 173, 3.7.2008, p 6
  13. Engler Danielle E., Mercury “bleaching” creams, 10.1016/j.jaad.2005.01.136
  14. Fontcuberta Mireia, Calderon Josep, Villalbí Joan R., Centrich Francesc, Portaña Samuel, Espelt Albert, Duran Julia, Nebot Manel, Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Marketed Food and Associated Health Risks for the Catalan (Spain) Population, 10.1021/jf2013502
  15. Fréry N, Saoudi A, Garnier R, Zeghnoun A, Falq G (2011) Exposition de la population française aux substances chimiques de l’environnement. Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice. Available at
  16. GeRES—Health and Environmental Hygiene—German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III), German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II). Available at . Last changed 11/01/2006
  17. Goullé Jean-Pierre, Mahieu Loïc, Castermant Julien, Neveu Nicolas, Bonneau Laurent, Lainé Gilbert, Bouige Daniel, Lacroix Christian, Metal and metalloid multi-elementary ICP-MS validation in whole blood, plasma, urine and hair, 10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.04.020
  18. Haefliger Pascal, Mathieu-Nolf Monique, Lociciro Stephanie, Ndiaye Cheikh, Coly Malang, Diouf Amadou, Faye Absa Lam, Sow Aminata, Tempowski Joanna, Pronczuk Jenny, Junior Antonio Pedro Filipe, Bertollini Roberto, Neira Maria, Mass Lead Intoxication from Informal Used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling in Dakar, Senegal, 10.1289/ehp.0900696
  19. Hays Sean M., Aylward Lesa L., LaKind Judy S., Bartels Michael J., Barton Hugh A., Boogaard Peter J., Brunk Conrad, DiZio Stephen, Dourson Michael, Goldstein Daniel A., Lipscomb John, Kilpatrick Michael E., Krewski Daniel, Krishnan Kannan, Nordberg Monica, Okino Miles, Tan Yu-Mei, Viau Claude, Yager Janice W., Guidelines for the derivation of Biomonitoring Equivalents: Report from the Biomonitoring Equivalents Expert Workshop, 10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.05.004
  20. Hays Sean M., Nordberg Monica, Yager Janice W., Aylward Lesa L., Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE) dossier for cadmium (Cd) (CAS No. 7440-43-9), 10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.05.008
  21. Hays Sean M., Aylward Lesa L., Gagné Michelle, Nong Andy, Krishnan Kannan, Biomonitoring Equivalents for inorganic arsenic, 10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.06.002
  22. Health Canada (2010) Report on human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals in Canada. Results of the Canadian health measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007–2009). Available at
  23. Heilier Jean-Fran�ois, Buchet Jean-Pierre, Haufroid Vincent, Lison Dominique, Comparison of atomic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods for the routine determination of urinary arsenic, 10.1007/s00420-004-0562-x
  24. Hoekstra EJ, Hayes CR, Aertgeerts R, Becker A, Jung M, Postawa A, Russell L, Witczak S (2009) Guidance on sampling and monitoring for lead in drinking water. EUR 23812 EN—Joint Research Centre—Institute for Health and Consumer Protection. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, JRC Scientific and technical reports. Luxembourg
  25. International Agency Research of Cancer (IARC) (2006) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: inorganic and organic lead compounds, vol 87. Lyon
  26. Jaffé MZ (1986) About the precipitation caused by pikrinic acid in normal urine and about a new reaction of creatinine. Z Physiol Chem 10:391–400
  27. Järup Lars, Åkesson Agneta, Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem, 10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.020
  28. JECFA Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (2005) Summary and conclusions of the sixty-fourth meeting of the JEFCA, Rome
  29. JEFCA Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (2006) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: sixty-seventh report of the JEFCA, Rome. WHO technical report series; no. 940, Geneva, 2007
  30. Kasemuana MS (2010) Energy systems: vulnerability—adaptation—resilience (VAR) 2009 regional focus: sub-Saharan Africa Democratic Republic of Congo. Available at . Accessed on September 2011
  31. Laparra José Moisés, Vélez Dinoraz, Barberá Reyes, Farré Rosaura, Montoro Rosa, Bioavailability of Inorganic Arsenic in Cooked Rice:  Practical Aspects for Human Health Risk Assessments, 10.1021/jf051365b
  32. Lateef A. S. A., Fernandez-Alonso Max, Tack Luc, Delvaux Damien, Geological constraints on urban sustainability, Kinshasa City, Democratic Republic of Congo, 10.1306/eg.04080908007
  33. Lauwerys R, Hoet P (2001) Industrial chemical exposure. Guidelines for biological monitoring, 3rd edn. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton
  34. Levy L.S., Jones K., Cocker J., Assem F.L., Capleton A.C., Background levels of key biomarkers of chemical exposure within the UK general population – Pilot study, 10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.032
  35. Mayeko KK (2009) Wastewater use and urban agriculture in Kinshasa, DR Congo. In: Redwood M (ed) Agriculture in urban planning—generating livelihoods and food security. Earthscan and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, pp 147–164
  36. Mazina N, Masumbuko M (2004) Regional awareness-raising workshop on mercury pollution Mercury situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, another problem that we should address. Presentations from the workshop session 3: global nature of the mercury problem: current knowledge with regard to global/regional/national releases of mercury to the environment Senegal. Available at . Accessed on September 2011
  37. Mbuyi M, Tuakuila KJ (2002) Détermination des métaux lourds dans les aliments fréquemment consommés à Kinshasa. Rev MES Unikin 4:57–64
  38. Meharg Andrew A., Lombi Enzo, Williams Paul N., Scheckel Kirk G., Feldmann Joerg, Raab Andrea, Zhu Yongguan, Islam Rafiql, Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains, 10.1021/es702212p
  39. Melnick Don J, Navarro Yolanda Kakabadse, McNeely Jeffrey, Schmidt-Traub Guido, Sears Robin R, The Millennium Project: the positive health implications of improved environmental sustainability, 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)17953-7
  40. Morand JJ, Ly F, Lightburn E, Mahé A (2007) Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa. Med Trop 67:627–634
  41. Njoroge GK, Njagi EN, Orinda GO, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Kayima JK, Environmental and occupational exposure to lead, 10.4314/eamj.v85i6.9626
  42. Nsokimieno MME, Chen S, Zhang IQ (2010) Sustainable urbanization’s challenge in Democratic Republic of Congo. J Sust Dev 3:242–254
  43. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2001) Environmental outlook 2001: human health and environment. OECD Publication, Chapter 21: ISBN 92-64-18615-8-No 51591
  44. Orloff Kenneth, Mistry Ketna, Metcalf Susan, Biomonitoring for Environmental Exposures to Arsenic, 10.1080/10937400903358934
  45. Pan Jilang, Plant Jane A., Voulvoulis Nikolaos, Oates Christopher J., Ihlenfeld Christian, Cadmium levels in Europe: implications for human health, 10.1007/s10653-009-9273-2
  46. Rossbach Bernd, Buchta Mark, Csanády György A., Filser Johannes G., Hilla Wolfgang, Windorfer Klaus, Stork Joachim, Zschiesche Wolfgang, Gefeller Olaf, Pfahlberg Annette, Schaller Karl-Heinz, Egerer Ellen, Pinzón Luis Carlos Escobar, Letzel Stephan, Biological monitoring of welders exposed to aluminium, 10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.09.018
  47. Satarug Soisungwan, Garrett Scott H., Sens Mary Ann, Sens Donald A., Cadmium, Environmental Exposure, and Health Outcomes, 10.1289/ehp.0901234
  48. Schulz C., Angerer J., Ewers U., Kolossa-Gehring M., The German Human Biomonitoring Commission, 10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.035
  49. Sin KW, Tsang HF (2003) Large-scale mercury exposure due to a cream cosmetic: community-wide case series. Hong Kong Med J 9:329–334
  50. Sun Guo-Xin, Williams Paul N., Zhu Yong-Guan, Deacon Claire, Carey Anne-Marie, Raab Andrea, Feldmann Joerg, Meharg Andrew A., Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments, 10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.020
  51. Suwazono Yasushi, Nogawa Kazuhiro, Uetani Mirei, Kido Teruhiko, Nakagawa Hideaki, Reassessment of the threshold of urinary cadmium by using hybrid approach in a cadmium non-polluted area in Japan, 10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.09.002
  52. Tuakuila J, Mbuyi F, Kabamba M, Lantin AC, Lison D, Hoet P, Blood lead levels in the Kinshasa population: a pilot study, 10.1186/0778-7367-68-1-30
  53. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2006) News release—better air quality for African Cities. Regional conference on better air quality in African cities kicks off in Nairobi. Available at . Accessed on October 2011
  54. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Environment for development. Water issues in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: challenges and opportunities—technical report, March 2011. Available at . Accessed on October 2011
  55. United Nations (UN) (2008). World urbanization prospects. The 2007 revision. United Nations, Department of Economy and social Affairs, Population Division, New York, ESA/P/WP/205
  56. Valkonen Sinikka, Aitio Antero, Analysis of aluminium in serum and urine for the biomonitoring of occupational exposure, 10.1016/s0048-9697(97)05485-5
  57. Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) (2003) Democratic Republic of Congo environmental analysis. Final report. Submitted to USAID Washington and Kinshasa. Available at . Accessed on September 2011
  58. World Health Organization (WHO) (2007) Estimated deaths & DALYs attributable to selected environmental risk factors by WHO Member State, 2002. Department of Public Health & Environment. January 2007. Available at . Accessed on January 2010
  59. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th ed. Geneva
  60. Wingqvist GÖ (2008) Democratic Republic of Congo—environmental and climate change policy brief Environmental Economics Unit (EEU). Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden