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Administrator: the system administrator is a responsible person for the technical operation of DIAL. You can contact the administrators via the Contact button, at the bottom of the page..

Approver: the approver checks the accuracy of the encoded data (including information about the type of publication). This is the scientific manager of the entity or person to whom it delegates this task. In case of error, the publication is sent to the encoder to change.

Author: this is the person responsible for publication. The author is the main actor of the repository. It is he who takes the initiative to deposit its publications.

Author’s rights: the author’s rights designate the law on intellectual and scientific property. It applies to all productions in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever the mode or form of expression, such as books, pamphlets and other writings, conference, choreographic, audiovisual, multimedia the architectural plans, pics, works of applied art, databases, computer programs,... expressed in an original form.

Bibliography: an enumeration or list of written works by a specific author or on a given subject.

Book: a non-serial publication that is complete in one volume or a designated finite number of volumes. Books are often identified with an ISBN (see below ISBN definition).

Boreal number: unique identifier for each record into DIAL.

COAR: "The Confederation of Open Access Repositories strives to enhance the visibility and application of research through global networks of Open Access repositories." (Source:

Conference paper: a conference paper that is submitted to a conference and presented to the audience. The conference paper is published in proceedings.

Conference proceedings: conference proceeding is the official record of a conference meeting. It is a collection of documents which corresponds to the presentations given at the conference.

Copyright: means the law of intellectual and scientific property. The copyright protection is limited to the strict sphere of the work, without considering the moral attribute to the author in relation to his work, except his paternity.

Creative commons: it is a non-profit organization whose aims to facilitate works diffusion and sharing while supporting the new creation practices in the digital age. Creative Commons licenses are standard contracts in which the authors determine the rights attached to the work they do. (See

CrossReff: it is an official Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation. (See:

Depositor (encoder): the depositor is the person making the publications's deposit in DIAL. He must complete a submission form containing the bibliographic data, the deposit of electronic version and restrictions on access to those files. The depositor is either the author or a person delegated by the research unit.

DIAL Librarians: the DIAL librarians are the resource people in charge of the support of depositors in libraries. Please contact your library to find out the terms of this service. You can contact the DIAL Librarians via the contact page.

DOAR - Directory of Open Access Repositories: it is an authoritative directory of academic open access repositories. As well as providing a simple repository list, it lets search for repositories or search repository contents. (See: )

DOI: the Digital Object Identifier allows the perennial identification of digital documents. It also allows finding the location of an online document if its URL changed. That facilitates the use of bibliographic databases and produces more reliable and perennial citation.

Embargo: this is the period when a prohibition is imposed by the publisher regarding the consultation of the full text of the documents in Open Access.

Eprint: in academic publishing, an eprint or e-print is a digital version of a research document that is accessible online. 

Handle: it is a permanent identifier assigned to a digital object. In DIAL, it is the permanent URL of publications.

Impact factor (IF): the IF of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations.

Institutional repository: this is a set of services provided by an institution (university, research organization...) to its members for the management, long-term preservation, diffusion and accessibility of their digital productions. In other words, it can make available electronically the works filed and contribute to the free flow of ideas and knowledge.

ISBN (International Standard Book Number): it is a book unique numeric  and commercial identifier. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007.

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number): it is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.

Mandate: decision by the university, forcing the researchers, authors of scientific publications to deposit references in the institutional repository together with the full-text of them.

Metadata: it description of an object’s data, for example: author, title, publisher, date of publication.

OAI - Open Archives Initiative: “The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is a protocol for collecting metadata about data files residing in separate archives. When the protocol is used by data services like search engines, they can process the data in separate archives as if they resided in just one archive.” (Source: FAQ BOAI - Budapest Open Access). 

Open Access (from the BOAI): "By 'open access' to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.".

Peer review: it is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the author of the work (peers). It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. 

Periodical: it is a serial publication with its own distinctive title, characterized by a variety of contents and contributors (e.g. articles, editorials…), and issued at regular intervals.

Post-print: it is the author’s final manuscript peer-reviewed and accepted for publication, but not yet laid out by the publisher.

Preprint: it is the manuscript submitted for publication, before peer-review

Publisher’s version (PubPrint): it is the post-print with publisher layout

Report: it is a separately published record about research findings, research still in progress, or other technical findings.

ROAR - Registry of Open Access Repositories: « it is a tool aims to promote the development of open access by providing timely information about the growth and status of repositories throughout the world. Open access to research maximises research access and thereby also research impact, making research more productive and effective.”

ROARMAP - Registry of Open Access Repository Material Archiving Policies: tool that identifies institutional policies regarding Open Access and self-archiving in the world.

Self-archiving: action by which researchers deposit themselves, their publications in open archives.

Sherpa/Romeo:  online resource that aggregates and analyses publisher open access policies from around the world and provides summaries of self-archiving permissions and conditions of rights given to authors on a journal-by-journal basis (

Thesis: a thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

Working paper: an unpublished paper usually circulated privately among a small group of peers, to provide information or with a request for comments.